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I've never really understood the nearly universal recommendation from US health policy bodies to reduce sodium intake because the NHANES data has pretty consistently shown either no or an inverse relationship between sodium intake and both CVD and all-cause mortality in US adults.

 

Despite this, the current CDC/IOM recommendation for adults under 50 is to limit sodium intake to a maximum of 2.3g/day...

 

But now we have a new, large meta-analysis (mainly of observational studies but with a couple of interventions thrown in) that shows that consuming LESS than 2.6g/day is associated with a higher risk of CVD and all-cause mortality and that up to 5g/day is not associated with any increase in mortality or disease incidence.

 

http://www.familypracticenews.com/special-reports/special-report-sodium-blood-pressure-and-mortality/single-article/too-much-or-too-little-sodium-may-boost-cardiovascular-risk/825a9ea9665bbcd210e8cdd31624cb33.html

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The original studies that were done that showed high blood pressure from high sodium intake was done on dehydrated diabetics.  The original guy who did the study said they set it up on purpose to get those results because that was what was expected from them after they got their grant.  He was dying and didn’t mind telling the truth.  Funny part is he’s not the on,y one to be admitting that he or she faked results because of who was funding them,

 

so so I have a hard time believing most studies now unless they are obvious,

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12 hours ago, Sorbate said:

The original studies that were done that showed high blood pressure from high sodium intake was done on dehydrated diabetics.  The original guy who did the study said they set it up on purpose to get those results because that was what was expected from them after they got their grant.  He was dying and didn’t mind telling the truth.  Funny part is he’s not the on,y one to be admitting that he or she faked results because of who was funding them,

 

so so I have a hard time believing most studies now unless they are obvious,

"The results come from a meta-analysis of 274,683 patients in 25 studies. Dr. Niels Graudal of Copenhagen University Hospital led the study"

out of 25,investigators said 2 were fully  randomized controlled,which is still sufficient data to get a rough conclusion on the study.

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In my opinion we should follow the recommendations from US health policy because we are REALLY addicted to sodium but we are not well informed what it does in our body.
We all know that salt emphasizes the taste of food but just like everything else if it's tasty it's probably not healthy.

As a very, veeery big sodium chloride (NaCl - table salt) lover I would (sadly) like to point out its side effects when taken more than the body requires:

- Bloating caused by increased intake of Na and with it it causes water retention
- High blood pressure (which is literally narrowing of the blood vessels) may lead to CVD, cardiac failure, as well as stroke 
- Na affects the cognitive abilities
- Kidneys have a key role in filtration of waste products from the blood and with excessive intake of Na they can't function as they should because of the increased blood pressure leading to imbalance of body fluids
- Large amount of sodium makes you want even more sodium (guess it's kinda like a drug 😋

- Aaand last but not least cutaneous edema (accumulation of fluid beneath the skin) 

Sooo... knowing this are you willing to try and put it aside for at least a while? Or find a fairly good substitution? Some say that paprika is a relatively good choice (not the one mixed with salt 😁). 
If you have a suggestion please DO share it with us. 

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Lets be very clear here and not vilify sodium as the enemy. Sodium does not cause bloating an increase in ADH anti diuretic hormone cause bloating which is a result of either not drinking enough water or misuse of diuretics namely aldosterone. It has never been proven that sodium causes hypertension.  Large amounts of sodium will build up in the blood and reduce ADH which will lead to increased urine output.  Water under the skin is not necessarily cause by sodium it can be cause by a lack of sodium as fluid cannot be pulled into the muscle without adequate sodium its called osmosis. Without adequate sodium you will also lose any chance of getting a pump npt to mention carb loading is impossible.  One of the biggest mistake guys make when competing is to lower sodium intake.  Table salt or NACL is also healthy for the thyroid as most lack sufficient iodine intake.  Sodium has been vilified for decades mainly due to misinformed medical community and misleading articles put out in fitness publications or by the media.   Unless you have an existing kidney condition there is no need to avoid sodium.  What is really important is drinking plenty of fresh water.  If this is dont the body will regulate its electrolyte levels and maintain homeostasis.  The trouble is people dont drink enough water they drink soda, coffee, alcohol etc.

 

T

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THE SALT SUCKS THE WATER OUT OF THE CELLS. And a cell cannot function normaly without water - it is the key to normal processes. So if this is balance is broken nothing in our body can function normaly. Drink a well of water if you want still you wont be able to compensate the water that the cells need (if you have a high level of sodium in the body), it will just drag it out and leave nothing for them.

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Sodium does not suck water from the cell this is incorrect.  The cell ie if we are talking muscle cells which we should be in BB will maintain homeostasis if it has adequate sodium and potassium.  The body maintains a water hierarchy and will move water according to that hierarchy because that is essential to maintain life...the bodies number one priority. 

The body functions in feedback loops, including water homeostasis, much like the thermostat and the air conditioner in your house, car, etc.

If you set the AC to 70 (its set point), the temp must reach some threshold (say 72) before it kicks in. It will cool until it reaches some value below its set point, say 68. There is an overshoot in the system. There must be some off-set or error to turn the AC on when the temperature reaches 72, and as a result it will cool to provide somewhat of a temperature buffer (for example 68 or 2 degree below the set point of 70).

Your body works much in the same way: imagine how your inner thermostat would react if you turned a heater on near the thermometer, but on the other side of the room from the AC. The heater would blast the thermometer (sensor) and the AC would be going full blast to cool the room. If you cut the heater off, the "smart" thermostat would not just cool the room to 68 - it would cool it to some level below that, because it remembers that there's a "threat" of heat AND the thermometer still hot, even though most of the room is at or below 70. (It senses a hotter room than is actually the case!) Water homeostasis is a bit more complicated, but you can use this principle to trick the body into drying out - losing water to a level of dehydration below its normal set point. 

 

When discussing diuretics and water retention it only seems logical to dispel another pre-contest myth: Salt is a bodybuilders’ friend, not enemy, pre-contest. Many bodybuilders eliminate sodium like an ex-spouse at a honeymoon assuming the result will be the coveted ‘dry look’ on contest day. When salt intake is reduced, a series of ‘dry look’ nemesis arise. Salt contains sodium, and to a less degree potassium in the form of potassium iodide. When salt/sodium is reduced or eliminated from the diet the result is increased Aldosterone release. This makes the body excrete more potassium and hold more sodium/water. The resulting water retention gives the athlete a puffy wet look. This is due to electrolyte imbalances.  

Reduced slat intake also negatively affects the all important sodium-potassium pump. This is the mechanism the body used to shuttle many nutrients into cells like those that all muscle fibers are composed of. (Gee, ya think?) This would therefore inhibit creatine and some amino acid structures from adequately transporting, as well as inhibit glycogen synthesis.  If the salt content is reduced in muscles so is the water content. This means catabolism, flat muscles come show time, and a lack of vascularity. (It would also inhibit erectile function, but that is another issue altogether.) 

The key to subcutaneous water control depends upon control of the hormone aldosterone. Obviously estrogen control is part of this hormone cascade action/reaction. But, our main focus is sodium and water control, so aldosterone is the key. 

 

While pre-contest dieting an athlete should have a relatively high sodium intake. This creates an environment in which the body does not have to release Aldosterone. This causes sodium to stay in the muscle tissue and the subsequent attraction of water stores there. Also, the all important maintaining of the sodium-potassium pump is accommodated as well. (During diet phases, this also reduces catabolism). At the same time water intake should be relatively high as well. This helps your body excrete any extra sodium, which of course it will, because Aldosterone secretion in the body has been controlled by elevated salt intake/water intake. The body will continue to dump all excess water and sodium as long as this is followed.

T

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On 4/10/2019 at 8:31 PM, Sorbate said:

The original studies that were done that showed high blood pressure from high sodium intake was done on dehydrated diabetics.  The original guy who did the study said they set it up on purpose to get those results because that was what was expected from them after they got their grant.  He was dying and didn’t mind telling the truth.  Funny part is he’s not the on,y one to be admitting that he or she faked results because of who was funding them,

 

so so I have a hard time believing most studies now unless they are obvious,

Yep!

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There are many publications that describe the role of sodium in the body.

Here is just one example.

https://www.merckmanuals.com/en-ca/professional/SearchResults?query=Overview+of+Sodium's+Role+in+the+Body&icd9=MM1140

 

When you say medical books, with regards to what question?  How the body regulates electrolytes? You can find that in most medical text books.  Its not my opinion this is just how the body functions based on science nothing more.  The human body controls water and electrolytes in a specific manner this is not open to interpretation otherwise you would have many peoples health being jeopardized by incorrect diagnosis and improper drug use ie diuretics, blood pressure medicine, sodium or potassium supplementation etc.

T

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If the question is related to sodium and hypertension than there is already a heated debate that many flawed studies used to correlate this should be dropped and much more current and  accurate information be used. Anecdotally I have dealt with hypertension and sodium intake had zero effect on it.

T

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