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  1. Vitamin D supplements could be beneficial to those suffering from asthma, researchers at King’s College London have found. The Vitamin helps lower the body’s production of the natural chemical IL -17A, which is produced to fight infections but known to exacerbate asthma. The researchers believe this could provide a viable alternative to treatment with steroids, which can be problematic to asthma sufferers.
  2. Named after the Greek word kreas, meaning flesh, creatine is an amino acid derivative found in all cells in the body, but is stored primarily in muscle. It plays an important role in tissues where energy levels quickly rise and fall, such as muscle. Creatine acts as a short sharp burst of recharge for our cells. Creatine also moves energy around the cell, from where it is generated to where it is needed. As the name suggests, creatine is naturally found in flesh and is acquired through a diet rich in fish, meat and other animal products such as dairy. As creatine is important for all cells to function, our body also makes its own. A diet containing animal products can account for 50% of daily creatine requirements, with the other 50% being made by the body. Those on an animal-free diet will naturally have a higher burden placed on the body to meet its entire creatine requirement. However, under normal circumstances, a healthy person can maintain adequate creatine levels even if they choose to follow a vegetarian or vegan diet. Why do people take creatine supplements? Natural and supplemental creatine have the same effect in the body – the concentration of creatine in a supplement is just much higher. This is why athletes often use creatine supplements to help them train and increase muscle performance. The standard dosing regime for an athlete is an initial dose of 0.3g for each kilogram of body weight per day (so if you’re 60kg you would take 60 x 0.3 = 18g of creatine every day) for a week. Then an ongoing dose would be 0.075g per kg per day (or 4.5g per day for the same 60kg person). When your body reaches the threshold of creatine it can absorb, the excess will come out in urine. Creatine is also important for brain function, as your brain uses a lot of energy. Some choose to take creatine to help boost alertness, and numerous studies are underway to assess whether creatine supplements might be useful for neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and mild depression. There isn’t enough information about the use of creatine supplementation in children, adolescents and pregnant women, so current guidelines recommend that they don’t take it. Those with pre-existing kidney conditions should also seek professional advice before taking supplements including creatine. While the supplements are safe for the general public, there is no need to supplement a normal balanced diet with creatine products. Gym-goers often use creatine, protein and other supplements to maximise their workouts – some with evidence and some without.John Jeddore/Flickr, CC BY Therapeutic uses of creatine Dietary creatine supplements have been trialled as a treatment for a range of conditions where muscle fibres break down. A successful application of creatine in this area is the treatment of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. While still in the trial phase, long-term creatine supplementation (over four months) appears to improve muscle strength and mass without adverse side-effects. Creatine is also considered as an additional therapy to help ease the progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and Huntington’s disease. Although the results of these studies have been relatively unconvincing. And while it is marketed as a supplement for the young and buff, creatine is also being trialled to help the elderly maintain their muscle and bone mass to help reduce the burden of falls. A link between creatine and fetal growth was established back in 1913. During pregnancy, the rapidly increasing nutrient demands of the growing baby pose a considerable energy challenge for the mother. Our recent studies show creatine synthesis, excretion, transport and storage are all changed by pregnancy. In a study of 270 women, our team found that pregnant woman who had less creatine in their urine gave birth to significantly smaller babies. These results raise the possibility that improvements in maternal diet, ensuring inclusion of foods containing creatine (meat and fish), could protect a baby from poor growth. The next step is to study maternal diet and maternal creatine concentrations throughout pregnancy. The findings may inform development of new dietary guidelines, including a minimum recommended creatine intake during pregnancy. Is creatine harmful? At times, creatine is confused with its breakdown product creatinine. The body maintains a tight ratio of creatine to creatinine, so the more creatine in your system the more likely you are to excrete excess creatinine in your urine. Increased creatinine in the urine is commonly taken as a sign that our kidneys aren’t properly filtering blood. This had led to published case studiesthat link creatine use to kidney dysfunction. While case studies have been publishedthat point to potential harms or side effects, scientific studies testing these cases have concluded that creatine is safe. In some cases creatine causes water retention. This could mean it has the potential to alter kidney function, but most studies have found this not to be the case. Some studies found that the supplement caused weight gain, probably due to this increase in water. The opinion of most experts is that creatine does not cause the type of nephrotic syndrome (kidney disease) that sadly claimed the life of rugby star Jonah Lomu, as some thought. There was speculation that creatine supplementation could have contributed to Jonah Lomu’s death, but it’s not likely. Hannah Peters/AAP Should pregnant women take creatine supplements? The evidence to support the use of creatine to enhance muscle performance is pretty clear. Throughout the countless studies of creatine supplementation in the sports arena, and in clinical studies, creatine has a good safety record. But there is no human safety data of creatine supplementation during pregnancy. While our work found mothers with higher levels of creatine in their urine are less likely to have a small baby, these data are based on women’s regular diets, without creatine supplementation. So, at this time there is no evidence to suggest creatine supplements are necessary for pregnant women. Simply eating a balanced diet, containing meat and fish, will ensure women receive adequate creatine for themselves and their babies.
  3. People have used bodybuilding to improve their physical performance for at least 1,500 years. The first recorded example was the sixth-century wrestler, Milo of Croton, in southern Italy. Milo reportedly carried out his daily exercises with a calf on his back. As the calf grew into a full sized ox, so too did Milo’s legendary strength. Milo, original muscle man. Wikimedia, CC BY-SA In the 1940s this concept of what has come to be known as progressive resistance exercise was developed more scientifically by US Army physician Thomas DeLorme to assist the recovery of injured service men and polio sufferers. It is a simple idea: lift a weight you can manage for a set routine and when after numerous training sessions it becomes too light, increase the weight. You repeat the process over and over and it leads to substantially improved strength. This is because the muscle adapts by growing to deal with heavier loads. DeLorme applied these principles to his own physical training and is said to have been formidably strong. Our little protein factories Thanks to these insights, in modern-day bodybuilding we now have a very good idea of how to improve muscle mass and strength. Muscle growth with progressive resistance exercise is a good example of how adaptable our skeletal muscle is. Part of the mechanism by which muscle grows is through a process called protein synthesis. Muscle grows by increasing the rate at which proteins are made, since muscle is made from protein. So macho! Kiselev Andrey Valerevich Protein synthesis also responds to eating dietary protein. And when protein is consumed following resistance exercise, muscle production is enhanced even further. What’s more, muscles that have been subjected to resistance exercises increase their protein synthesis rates more than non-exercised muscles after each meal for at least the next 48 hours. Not only is this insight useful for bodybuilders, it also tells us something useful about muscle wasting. We know that slow wasting conditions such as sarcopenia, where muscle mass progressively diminishes with age, are due to the impaired ability of muscle to increase protein production in response to feeding or loading. In effect, the muscle’s protein-building machinery becomes resistant to growth stimuli. This causes the protein, and hence the muscle, to be lost, which leads to reduced muscle function. This is important because muscle loss with age is associated with impaired physical function and loss of independence. This is particularly true if it is combined with the muscle wasting that people experience if they are immobilised after injuries or surgery. For example, around 50% of women over the age of 65 who break a hip never walk again. The cause? Loss of muscle mass associated with the injury and the ensuing bed rest. Sarcopenia is also associated with an increased risk of falling. A review of the cost of treating fall-related injuries in 1999 showed that falls in the over-60s cost the UK government close to a £1bn a year (more than £1.5bn in today’s money). There is therefore a huge public interest in developing safe and effective strategies to prevent muscle wasting. Muscle wasting is worst when ageing and injury combine. Wikimedia, CC BY The research race We have been aware of this link between muscle wasting and protein synthesis impairment for a long time. You don’t see many old people in the gym lifting weights, but that is exactly what they should be doing to try and offset these effects. For the vast majority of abstainers, researchers have been looking for potential drug treatments in this area for more than 30 years. And for about the last 15 they have been employing biochemistry techniques in human studies to try and understand the molecular signals that tell the muscle to grow. These molecular signals act like the foreman on a building site. They read the conditions by sensing whether there is sufficient building materials and manpower to build and whether there has been a change in demand on the existing muscle. They then relay that information into an appropriate growth response to meet the demands placed on the system by initiating or stopping muscle protein synthesis. The question is which molecules are doing this foreman’s job, which has proved far harder to ascertain than initially might have been hoped. The combined efforts of researchers these past few years have pointed to the likelihood that the culprit is a molecule called p70S6K1. Various teams are now looking at how it potentially leads to more muscle protein being produced, including my own. One reason why it has taken a long time for anyone to fully explain what happens is because it is hard to measure how this molecule functions in human skeletal muscle. This makes it harder to determine its role in making muscles grow. We have optomised a simple, cost-effective and accurate technique to solve this measuring difficulty. We have already been putting it through human trials, and hope to have a definitive answer in the next five to ten years. While others take different approaches, the race is on to determine whether p70S6K1 will be a good drug target to treat muscle wasting. After that, it might take another couple of decades to develop commercial drugs. Needless to say, solving the riddle of muscle wasting is not a quick process. But if science finally triumphs here, it will be a great example of how the answers to problems can come from the most unlikely of sources. For now though, the best advice is to take the lead from bodybuilding and undertake a programme of progressive resistance exercise while ensuring you consume adequate amounts of protein.
  4. The U of G researchers discovered that avocatin B (AvoB), a fat molecule found only in avocados, counters incomplete oxidation in skeletal muscle and the pancreas to reduce insulin resistance. In their study, the team fed mice high-fat diets for eight weeks to induce obesity and insulin resistance. For the next five weeks, they added AvoB to the high-fat diets of half of the mice. The treated mice weighed significantly less than those in the control group, showing slower weight gain. More important, said Spagnuolo, the treated mice showed greater insulin sensitivity, meaning that their bodies were able to absorb and burn blood glucose and improve their response to insulin. In a human clinical study, AvoB given as a dietary supplement to participants eating a typical western diet was absorbed safely into their blood without affecting the kidney, liver or skeletal muscle. The team also saw reductions in weight in human subjects, although Spagnuolo said the result was not statistically significant. Having demonstrated its safety in humans, they plan to conduct clinical trials to test AvoB's efficacy in treating metabolic ailments in people. Spagnuolo said the safety trial helped the team to determine just how much AvoB to include in the supplement formulation. Having received Health Canada approval for the compound as a human supplement, he will begin selling it in powder and pill forms as soon as 2020 through SP Nutraceuticals Inc., a Burlington, Ont.-based natural health products company. He said eating avocados alone would likely be ineffective, as the amount of natural avocatin B varies widely in the fruit and we still do not fully understand exactly how it is digested and absorbed when we consume a whole avocado. Although avocados have been touted as a weight-loss food, Spagnuolo said more study is needed. He said a healthy diet and exercise are recommended to prevent metabolic disorders leading to obesity or diabetes. PhD student Nawaz Ahmed, lead author of the paper, said, "We advocate healthy eating and exercise as solutions to the problem, but that's difficult for some people. We've known this for decades, and obesity and diabetes are still a significant health problem." In earlier work funded by the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Spagnuolo has studied the potential use of avocatin B for treating acute myeloid leukemia. Story Source: Materials provided by University of Guelph. Note: Content may be edited for style and length. Journal Reference: Nawaz Ahmed, Matthew Tcheng, Alessia Roma, Michael Buraczynski, Preethi Jayanth, Kevin Rea, Tariq A. Akhtar, Paul A. Spagnuolo. Avocatin B Protects Against Lipotoxicity and Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Diet‐Induced Obesity. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 2019; 1900688 DOI: 10.1002/mnfr.201900688
  5. Nutritional therapy is important to treat the type 2 diabetes optimally, but the recommendations are unclear. According to the Danish Health Authority, up to 85% of newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes are overweight, and they are typically advised to follow a diet focused on weight loss: containing less calories than they burn, low fat content and a high content of carbohydrates with a low 'glycaemic index' (which indicates how quickly a food affects blood sugar levels). Reduced carbohydrate content -- increase in protein and fat A central aspect in the treatment of type 2 diabetes is the patient's ability to regulate their blood sugar levels, and new research now indicates that a diet with a reduced carbohydrate content and an increased share of protein and fat improves the patient's ability to regulate his or her blood sugar levels compared with the conventional dietary recommendations. In addition, it reduces liver fat content and also has a beneficial effect on fat metabolism in type 2 diabetics. "The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of the diet without 'interference' from a weight loss. For that reason, the patients were asked to maintain their weight. Our study confirms the assumption that a diet with a reduced carbohydrate content can improve patients' ability to regulate their blood sugar levels -- without the patients concurrently losing weight," explains Senior Consultant, DMSc Thure Krarup, MD, from the Department of Endocrinology at Bispebjerg Hospital. He continues: "Our findings are important, because we've removed weight loss from the equation. Previous studies have provided contradictory conclusions, and weight loss has complicated interpretations in a number of these studies." New dietary recommendations for type 2 diabetics in future Based on the growing body of evidence, we might rethink the dietary recommendations for patients with type 2 diabetes, stresses Thure Krarup: "The study shows that by reducing the share of carbohydrates in the diet and increasing the share of protein and fat, you can both treat high blood sugar and reduce liver fat content. Further intensive research is needed in order to optimise our dietary recommendations for patients with type 2 diabetes," says Thure Krarup, stressing that the findings should be confirmed in large-scale, long-term controlled trials. Summary: What did the study show? A diet with a reduced carbohydrate content, high protein content and moderately increased fat content improves glycaemic control (the ability to regulate blood sugar) by reducing blood sugar after meals and 'long-term blood sugar' (measured by 'HbA1c', which is a blood test used to measure the average blood sugar level over approximately the past two months). A diet with a reduced carbohydrate content, a high protein content and a moderately increased fat content reduces liver fat content. A diet with a reduced carbohydrate content may be beneficial to patients with type 2 diabetes -- even if it does not lead to weight loss. About the study The study forms part of CutDM, which -- supported by a grant of DKK 4 million from Arla Food for Health -- examines whether a diet with reduced carbohydrate content and increased protein and fat content improves type 2 patients' blood sugar regulation. 28 patients with type 2 diabetes participated in the study over a total period of 12 weeks. For six weeks, the patients were given a conventional diabetes diet with a high carbohydrate content, and, for the other six weeks, they were given a diet with a reduced carbohydrate content, high protein content and moderately increased fat content. The patients were given the diet types in random order. Story Source: Materials provided by Faculty of Science - University of Copenhagen. Note: Content may be edited for style and length. Journal Reference: Mads J. Skytte, Amirsalar Samkani, Amy D. Petersen, Mads N. Thomsen, Arne Astrup, Elizaveta Chabanova, Jan Frystyk, Jens J. Holst, Henrik S. Thomsen, Sten Madsbad, Thomas M. Larsen, Steen B. Haugaard, Thure Krarup. A carbohydrate-reduced high-protein diet improves HbA1c and liver fat content in weight stable participants with type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial. Diabetologia, 2019; DOI: 10.1007/s00125-019-4956-4
  6. Many women aren't sleeping enough to be healthy and perform at their peak. Here's why, and what to do about it. Sleeping Beauty? If only. For many women—especially those who train hard—a nice, long slumber is increasingly hard to come by, and it's messing up their lives. "Sleep is now considered the third pillar of health and wellness, to go along with nutrition and exercise," says Bill Fish, a certified sleep science coach and co-founder of the sleep-focused website Tuck.com. "There is no question that society has swung a bit to focus more on the importance of sleep recently, but too much of that focus has been on quantity instead of quality. Just because we are in bed for eight hours doesn't mean we are getting eight hours of quality sleep." Why Women Are Often Shortchanged On Shut-Eye Women are 40 percent more likely than men to develop insomnia, and research has shown that sleep disturbances will predictably increase during specific stages in a woman's life: puberty, menstruation and the week before, pregnancy, menopause, and postmenopause.[1] About one-third of women lose sleep due to cramps, bloating, and headaches from menstruation and PMS, and as many as 61 percent of postmenopausal women are unsatisfied with their sleep and experience insomnia symptoms regularly.[1] "The predictable differences in sleep between males and females across their lifespan is most likely due to the influence that the female gonadotropic hormones and their milestones have on sleep," explains Kelly Benson, a performance sleep coach and founder of Performance Sleep Method. "Yet biological changes are just the beginning of sleep disturbances for women. Socioeconomic, psychosocial, and comorbid health issues, as well as cultural and ethnic differences, also influence the quality of sleep." For instance, women report less leisure time than men, likely due to the increased household and family obligations that more often fall on them. Benson argues that this results in more stress and a greater need for sleep at night. As women age, she continues, they're more likely to experience insomnia because of natural age-related changes in sleep and hormonal shifts. Other sleep issues, including obstructive sleep apnea and restless leg syndrome, can come into play as well. Furthermore, psychosocial issues, such as depression and anxiety, are commonly associated with insomnia and disrupted sleep. Research shows that women tend to cope with stressful life events by worrying and using avoidance, both of which increase the likelihood of depression and subsequently insomnia.[2] In fact, women, in general, experience higher rates of depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric disorders that can contribute to insomnia starting from puberty. Persistent, chronic insomnia will then dramatically increase the likelihood of developing a major depressive disorder, leading to a vicious cycle of depression and insomnia.[3] Finally, women's sleep is more likely to be interrupted by a snoring male, a crying baby, and longer circadian rhythms than those of men. Often, this leads to the need for daytime naps, which can make nighttime sleep even more elusive. The Role Played By Overtraining And Undereating Countless studies link exercise with improved sleep quality and the ability to fall asleep more quickly. There's a point of diminishing returns, however. Poor sleep is a classic marker of overtraining; that is, training above your body's ability to recover. Exhaustive, high-intensity activity can interfere with REM sleep, especially in women, and the effect is compounded by restricting calories.[4] "If you are participating in high-intensity exercise and lowering calories, there is a markedly higher incidence of sleep disturbances," says Rachel MacPherson of RadicalStrength.ca, ACE-certified personal trainer. "Insomnia can result from not getting enough nutrition to help recover from exercise." As a result, your weight-loss efforts will eventually stall, and so will your performance. If you do all-out workouts such as HIIT cardio, CrossFit, high-volume strength training, or endurance sports, make sure you eat enough nutrient-dense food to fuel your training and recovery—even if it's more than what's written into your meal plan. Also, schedule in plenty of recovery days. Putting in quality training volume while taking care of your body will ultimately lead to a healthier body composition. The Health Dangers Of Skimping On Sleep Sleep deprivation puts you at risk for myriad health issues, says Bart Wolbers, master of clinical health science and chief science writer at AlexFergus.com. These include: Heart disease. Simply missing a few hours of sleep at night consistently over a period of years increases your blood pressure, and higher blood pressure is one of the best predictors of heart disease.[5] Mental impairment. Sleep deprivation inhibits many abilities regulated by the prefrontal cortex (the "CEO of your brain"), including working memory (your ability to hold multiple pieces of information in your mind at any given moment), decision making, self-control, focus and attention, and long-term memory.[6] Your risk for brain conditions such as Alzheimer's also increases with sleep loss.[7] Weight gain. Sleeping fewer hours and having lower sleep quality is linked with an increased obesity risk.[8] The culprit? A lowered ability for your body's cells to take up glucose; higher levels of cortisol, the stress hormone; and heightened levels of ghrelin, the hunger hormone. Emotional deficiencies. By losing sleep, your quality of life decreases, your ability to cope with stress is impaired, and your emotional distress rises.[9] Slower workout recovery. Human growth hormone (HGH) is released during deep sleep, which promotes tissue repair and recovery after training sessions. Even one night of sleep loss will cause a sharp decline in the secretion of HGH.[10] This will not only lead to a loss of muscle mass over time, but also a reduction in exercise capacity. Advanced Sleep Hygiene You might have already heard the term "sleep hygiene." This refers to lifestyle habits that help you sleep better, such as limiting alcohol and caffeine, turning down the thermostat at night, sticking to a consistent bedtime routine, and avoiding blue light from your phone and TV a few hours before bed. These four tips can make a world of difference when it comes to quality sleep. If you've been there, done that, and you're still tossing and turning, add these techniques: Breathe through your nose. "The breath is the most important aspect of sleep and life," says Anil Rama, MD, who serves as adjunct clinical faculty at the Stanford Center for Sleep Sciences and Medicine and medical director and founder of Kaiser Permanente's tertiary sleep medicine laboratory. "How we get that breath is every bit as important as the breath itself. When taken through the nose, air is humidified, filtered, sterilized, warmed, slowed, and oxygenated. The mind and body are calm, and sleep is enriched." Listen to bedtime stories. Remember the magic of bedtime stories during childhood? "Try listening to an audio novel before bedtime," says Jodi De Luca, Ph.D., a licensed clinical psychologist based in Erie, Colorado. "The rhythm of the narrator's voice can help to lull you to sleep by slowing down brainwave activity." Watch your supplements. "A B-complex supplement or a B6 vitamin has been shown to increase nightmares and make dreams more vivid," says nutritionist Lisa Richards, author of "The Candida Diet." Take these supplements earlier in the day. (On the other hand, there are some supplements, such as ZMA, that are better taken at night.) Simplify your schedule. There's a lot competing for your time. Trim the fat so you can sleep more. Say no to social commitments you're not that into (or leave early), rein in your Netflix-bingeing, step back from social media, and learn to be OK with a clean-ish house. We all want to have full lives, but there are only so many hours in a day. Prioritize sleep, and you'll be more present for everything else you do. References Mallampalli, M. P., & Carter, C. L. (2014). Exploring sex and gender differences in sleep health: a Society for Women's Health Research Report. Journal of Women's Health, 23(7), 553-562. Girgus, J., Yang, K., & Ferri, C. (2017). The gender difference in depression: are elderly women at greater risk for depression than elderly men?. Geriatrics, 2(4), 35. Tamanna, S., & Geraci, S. A. (2013). Major sleep disorders among women. Southern Medical Journal, 106(8), 470-8. Bunnell, D. E., Bevier, W., & Horvath, S. M. (1983). Effects of exhaustive exercise on the sleep of men and women. Psychophysiology, 20(1), 50-58. Palagini, L., Maria Bruno, R., Gemignani, A., Baglioni, C., Ghiadoni, L., & Riemann, D. (2013). Sleep loss and hypertension: a systematic review. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 19(13), 2409-2419. Alhola, P., & Polo-Kantola, P. (2007). Sleep deprivation: Impact on cognitive performance. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. Lack of sleep may be linked to risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. (2018, April 13). Retrieved from https://www.nih.gov/news-events/lack-sleep-may-be-linked-risk-factor-alzheimers-disease Cooper, C. B., Neufeld, E. V., Dolezal, B. A., & Martin, J. L. (2018). Sleep deprivation and obesity in adults: a brief narrative review. BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine, 4(1), e000392. Medic, G., Wille, M., & Hemels, M. E. (2017). Short-and long-term health consequences of sleep disruption. Nature and Science of Sleep, 9, 151. Van Cauter, E., & Plat, L. (1996). Physiology of growth hormone secretion during sleep. The Journal of Pediatrics, 128(5), S32-S37.
  7. If you listen to the talking heads, when it comes to anabolic steroids you’re probably under the impression steroids and teenagers is the epidemic of the modern era. Almost any time a news report discusses anabolic steroids, it doesn’t matter what the discussion is based upon it will to a degree turn to or at least mention steroids and teenagers almost each and every time. For those who hate anabolic steroids, this is one of their main weapons; anabolic steroids plus teenagers equals bad news. When anabolic steroids are mentioned in a professional sports scandal, each and every time we hear how such activity is damaging to young, impressionable minds because it encourages them to supplement. This leads us to a very important question; are they right? Do steroids and teenagers not mix; do pro athletes supplementing with steroids influence our children, and is there truly an epidemic on our hands? In the eyes of the anti-steroid crowd, the answer to the above questions is yes for everyone, and enough reason to keep anabolic steroids on the controlled substance list. Again we ask, are they correct in their thinking? Let’s go ahead and get this right out of the way; steroids and teenagers do not mix; such a relationship can be extremely damaging to their fragile and developing bodies. We’ll explain more as we go along, but what about the other two questions, the influential factor and the epidemic? If these are non-existent problems it puts a massive hole in the anti-argument; it doesn’t change the fact steroids should not be used by teenagers, but it does raise questions regarding the controlled nature of the hormones. Let’s take a look and see what we can find. Steroids 101 To discuss this topic with any validity, we must first have a general understanding of anabolic steroids. Anabolic Androgenic Steroids generally referred to as “Anabolic Steroids” or “AAS” are synthetic derivatives of the primary male androgen Testosterone and Dihydrotestosterone to a lesser degree. The term “Anabolic Steroid” itself is a generic term, as it refers to a large class of hormones of which there are many. These are not foreign substances to the body; although they are synthetically made they are hormones the body is well accustomed to. To understand AAS, we can learn a lot from the term itself, as each word is very telling. Steroids are four-cyclic rings of 17 carbon atoms; there are literally hundreds and hundreds of steroids found in the human body and nature, even in plants; many are not of an anabolic nature, but the ones we’re concerned with are of an anabolic and fat based nature. As for “Anabolic” this refers to anabolism or in simplistic terms “muscle building”; one way to phrase it is anabolic refers to the constructive nature of the metabolism. Then we’re left with androgenic, which simply refers to the promotion of the male sexual characteristics. This is anabolic steroids in a general sense; now you at least know what they are, but we assure you there is so much more to learn about them directly and we encourage you to do some digging. However, here we are only concerned about steroids and teenagers and the arguments made revolving around the subject, and now that we know what steroids are we can do just that. The Dangers of Steroids and Teenagers When it comes to the argument against the relationship of steroids and teenagers, this argument is dead on the money; the two should never for any reason exist with one another. There are several reasons steroids and teenagers do not mix three specifically, and while two are facts the one used by the anti-steroid crowd has yet to be proven as fact, but there’s a decent possibility it may hold some truth. The argument is simple; anabolic steroids will stunt a developing body’s growth by closing growth plates prematurely. If this is true, it is a sound argument, but it’s nowhere near as damaging as the other two which are absolute facts. When steroids and teenagers collide, this has a strong, negative impact on their natural androgen production which has yet to fully develop to its full capacity. Some teens will find supplementation enhances their puberty rate in an unsatisfactory manner, as well as lead to inefficient androgen production in the long run. To make matter worse, anabolic steroids appear to have a tremendously negative impact on the mental state of teenagers. Many teenagers often experience severe depression after discontinuing anabolic steroid use; something that is normally not a problem for healthy adult men. For an adolescent, once use is discontinued his testosterone levels will be low, very low, and low testosterone can cause depression in any man regardless of age; however, let’s remember what was discussed above. When an adult man discontinues use, he is doing so with an already well-developed androgen system, and as such his natural testosterone production will begin again. As you recall, there’s a good chance a teen has damaged his androgen production, and while his natural production may begin again it will more than likely do so at a rate that is unsatisfactory. Further, most adults who supplement with anabolic steroids understand you do not simply stop and hope for the best; that’s the last thing you want to do. Most adult men will do things to promote their natural testosterone production, to get production going again at an efficient level; this is a thought most teens don’t know they need to have, and as such is tremendously damaging. The BS Argument There are a few arguments made by the anti-steroid crowd, but for years, the primary argument made has been that anabolic steroids must be controlled in-order to protect children. Even presidents have jumped on the bandwagon, stating pro athlete use sends the wrong message to teens. Of course, they would also argue the campaign has been successful based on the numbers we stated above, but come on, let’s be honest about the whole thing. By “protecting the children”, (massive eye role implied) we are punishing free adults. We know children shouldn’t take steroids, but we know they shouldn’t smoke or drink either, but of course they are and at high rates. Even so, we control these items in a way that allows adults to make a decision for themselves; can the same not be done with anabolic steroids? Of course, the argument is made about keeping sports clean and pure, and if a sport deems steroid use is cheating then it’s cheating pure and simple. What about the rest of us; what about the six-million who largely supplement for their own personal benefit, they don’t play sports, they simply want to look better; are they not entitled to decide for themselves? If a free adult who lives in the United States decides to supplement with anabolic steroids, if he makes this decision based upon the liberty he has been granted as an American citizen, if his decision does not infringe on the life, liberty or pursuit of happiness of another can he not decide for himself? If you want to drink yourself into oblivion you are free to do so; if you want to eat four-hundred doughnuts a day until your gut explodes you are granted this right as a free human being. In either case, you’re an idiot, but by liberty we are allowed to be idiots so as long as we do so by our own hand and harm no one else. How is it anabolic steroids are any different?
  8. musclebeauty

    My boy's

    My 2 boys..... the loves of my life...my therapy dogs, my best friends.....❤❤❤
  9. There are a lot of wonderful things about summer that make it easier to stick to a healthy lifestyle: The nicer weather makes heading outside for a walk, bike ride or swim more tempting; fresh veggies are abundant and affordable at roadside stands and farmers’ markets; and dessert is easier (and healthier) than ever thanks to the availability of ripe, fresh, sweet fruit! Of course, there’s room in our diets for the occasional piece of pie or fudgy brownie, but for a healthy everyday treat, you can’t beat fresh fruit. And summer is the time to really get your fill! We absolutely love fresh summer melons because they’re not only super tasty and naturally sweet, but they are packed with water and tons of nutrients (not to mention, bright and beautiful to the eye!). Watermelon slices are great for a quick and easy weeknight dessert for your family, but here’s a way to elevate your fruit and its appearance for something a little more special. This super simple, three-ingredient summer melon salad still comes together in a flash. And you’ll be amazed at how melons taste even fresher and tastier with a little bit of lemon zest. It’s the perfect way to celebrate summer! Three-Ingredient Summer Melon Salad Makes 2 servings Ingredients 1 cup watermelon balls 1 cup cantaloupe balls Zest of one lemon Directions Combine all three ingredients. Toss until well-combined. Serve immediately. Nutrition Per Serving 47 calories, 0.1g fat, 13.1g carbohydrates, 0.9g protein
  10. Nutrition labels are meant to be informative, but more often than not they can be difficult to understand. I’d like to think that I’m intelligent, but ask me to read the nutrition label on a box of popcorn, and my brain is reduced to the mental equivalent of garbanzo beans. Serving size – the first thing you want to look at is the serving size, and how many servings are in the container. I used to think that the serving size for Oreos was “one package.” Turns out it’s two cookies. Clearly you can see my discrepancy. Caloric Content – trying to watch your weight? Watch your calories! Essentially, this part of the label tells you how much energy you’re taking in. It also tells you how much of that energy is coming from fat. The Nutrients – this part of the label clues you in on macro-nutrients (fat and protein), vitamins, minerals, and fiber. The left side of the column lists the nutrient (e.g. Iron, total fat, fiber), and the right side of the columns lists the percentage of the recommended daily value (%DV) for that nutrient. Too Much Generally speaking, most Americans consume too much of the following nutrients: Total fat Saturated fat Cholesterol Sodium Protein Not Enough We want to work on getting more of these: Fiber Mono and polyunsaturated fat Iron Vitamins A and C One thing to keep in mind when talking about Daily Value percentages is these percentages are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. So, if you’re daily calorie budget is 1,500, the percentages will be higher for you. So there you have it! The nutrition label, decoded. Now, if anyone can tell me why un-popped popcorn is listed on a nutrition label…that would solve one of life’s mysteries for me.
  11. If you want to gain mass within a short time, there are fewer steroids that can give you the bulk you need than Anadrol. The anabolic steroid is also referred to as Anadrol 50 but in scientific circles, is known as Oxymetholone. Anadrol 50 was first unveiled in the market in the early 1960s. When introduced, the steroid was marketed as excellent treatment for muscle wasting diseases, osteoporosis and anemia. While the compound is still used in medical circles in treatment of various ailments, it is more popular in the bodybuilding community. The steroid is one of the most toxic anabolics available in the market but can give you immense muscular explosion. What Can Anadrol Do? Let’s look at some effects of using Anadrol 50 for performance enhancement. i) Serious Mass Gain When you use Adrol 50, you can realize serious mass gains within a short time. In a typical cycle lasting between 4 to 6 weeks, you can gain between 20 and 30 pounds. The mass gaining trait of the steroid is recognized in the medical community and this is why Anadrol is usually prescribed for treatment of muscle atrophy. Apart from this, patients with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) are usually prescribed the drug to help them gain lean muscle mass. ii) High Anabolic-to-Androgenic Ratio The anabolic rate of Adrol is very high compared to its androgenic rate. The steroid is rated to have an anabolic rate of 320 while its androgenic rate is 45. To get an idea of the discrepancy in the ratio, compare it to testosterone, which has an anabolic rate of 100 and androgenic rate of 100. Oxymetholone is highly anabolic because its structure has been altered, with a 2-hydroxymethylene group being added to it. As a result, the compound remains active in the muscle tissue longer than most steroids. However, Anadrol does not bind very well with androgen receptors. This is why it has a low androgenic rate. iii) Reduction in SHBG Level Using Adrol will reduce the level of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in your body. One of the important building blocks that contribute to strength and a great physique is testosterone. However, the SHBG likes to bind itself on free testosterone. On binding, SHBG prevents testosterone from doing its job effectively. Taking Anadrol pills helps to lower SHBG activity in the body. In turn, the testosterone hormone can build more muscles and increase your libido. iv) Increase in Strength When you use Adrol 50, you will get immense strength within a short time. Some users have reported increases of up to 40 pounds in compound lifts less than 30 days. These results are backed up by various studies that have investigated the effect of the compound on strength. Android pills, also known as “A-Bombs” are popular among bodybuilders because of the strength gains they lead to. Most power lifters use the pills when competitions are near. However, it is important to remember that the sudden bursts of strength experienced when you take Anadrol tablets can disappear just as quickly as they appeared. v) Used in Medical Treatment While there is restriction on the use of Anadrol, the steroid is still used in medical circles. In particular, Anadrol steroids are used to treat anemia due to their ability to increase the production of red blood cells in the body. The compound is also effective in treating Fanconi and other types of anemia. Given the effect of the compound in production of red blood cells, taking Adrol pills can help to improve your muscle endurance and allow you to carry out more intense weightlifting workouts. However, keep in mind that the sudden increase in blood due to the effects of Adrol 50 can lead painful “bumps” when you are working out. These pains are usually felt on the shin and lower back during workouts. Side Effects of Anadrol 50 There are a number of possible side effects that can be encountered when using Anadrol. The side effects are not absolute and some people do not experience them. However, depending on how your body reacts to the steroid, you will be at risk of the following: i) Gynecomastia Like is the case with majority of anabolic steroids, Anadrol is non-aromatizing. This means it does not convert to estrogen. With this information, you may think using the steroid will not lead to side effects like water retention and gynecomastia. However, these side effects are still experienced despite the compound’s non-estrogenic nature. Before you buy Anadrol tables online and start taking them, it’s advisable to have the necessary compounds that can counter the anticipated side effects. For example, you need a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) during a cycle. ii) Liver Damage Anadrol is an oral anabolic steroid and have been modified to pass through the liver. The compound is modified at the 17th carbon position, which makes it a C17-alpha-alkylaed steroid. Being able to take the steroid orally is convenient for most people than having to inject it. However, the steroid is hepatotoxic and can damage your liver when taken in higher doses. iii) Androgenicity Side Effects Androgenicity side effects such as hair loss and acne can also be encountered when you start taking Adrol 50 pills. The side effects are quickly manifested among users that have a genetic predisposition to suffer from them. This being the case, you should closely monitor your body for any signs of androgenic side effects. You can also reduce the impact of the side effects by using Finasteride (Propecia) and/or a good anti-acne body scrub during your cycle. iv) Not Good For Women Anadrol has serious side effects among women. For example, it can cause virilization (development of male sex characteristics). Some of the virilization effects that can be manifested in women include facial hair, increased body hair, having a deeper voice, clitoral enlargement and acne. It is important to know how Anadrol steroid works before you start using it.
  12. 1. Train With Light And Heavy Weight When people want to gain muscle, they tend to stick with heavy weight. When they want to get ripped, they tend to stick with light weight. However, if you want to get the best results, then your workout regime should consist of training with light weight, heavy weight, high reps and low reps. Training this way will give you the best of both worlds. Also, to balance things out, half your workout should consist of training with heavy weight and the other half should consist of training with light weight. 2. Do Cardio Daily There is no way around it, if you want to get into shape and stay in shape, then you need to do cardio. You don’t necessarily have to do a lot of cardio, but you do want to do high-intensity cardio. If you’re not able to do high-intensity cardio, then you can do things such as long walks, jumping jacks or cycling. The key is to do cardio daily or at least 5-6 days per week. Running, jogging, cycling, dancing and the elliptical are some of the best forms of cardio. Also, feel free to mix up your cardio workouts or do different cardio workouts daily. 3. Eat Sensibly Diet and nutrition plays a huge role in fitness. If your goal is to get into shape, then you need to eat right. This doesn’t mean you have to follow a strict diet, but you do want to eat with commonsense in mind. This means stay away from sugary foods and drinks. Everyone knows what types of junk food they should stay away from, but they find it difficult. There are things you can do to increase your chances of staying away from bad food, and one of those things is keeping fruit in your home. When you get a sugar craving, then you can eat fruit instead of junk food. When you combine healthy eating habits with exercise, then you will slowly change your body over time and before you know it you will look better and feel better. 4. Bring Lunch With You To Work All too often, people ruin their fitness goals because they get hungry while they are at work and instead of eating a healthy lunch, they head to the nearest fast food restaurant. If you’re serious about getting in shape, then you need to get serious about your lunch, even if you work a hectic job or have a short lunch break. What you should do is prepare your lunch the night before you go to work, and you should eat things such as grilled chicken salad with no dressing or grilled chicken sandwiches on wholegrain bread. Also make sure to visit this legal steroids here website social pages to get way more information on diets, bodybuilding, supplements. 5. Do Squats Throughout The Day The squat is the king of all leg exercises and it is one of the best exercises you can do to improve your fitness levels and physique. Best of all, you can do squats anywhere and anytime, and you don’t need weights. If you want to get in shape, then do body weight squats throughout the day. You can do 3-4 quick sets first thing in the morning and another 3-4 quick sets in the afternoon, followed by 3-4 more sets late afternoon and another 3-4 sets in the evening time. Also, do squats throughout the day, even on the days you train with the weights and the number of reps you do per set is completely up to you.
  13. While it would truly be a dream scenario in which every single gym we walk into would be the perfect gym of our dreams. However, as many of us gym rats know, a lot of gyms are currently operating today in ways that would put a scare in those who visit their gyms. What is going to be following here is a list of nine things to look out for to spot a bad gym, because they are around and they do exist. #1: A Friendly Smile When you walk through the front doors of a gym, the first employee you spot should welcome you with a smile, if they do not, then the rest of the experience from beginning to end could be foretold by that first unpleasant outing. #2: Cleanliness If everything in the gym from the floors to the lockers to the majority of equipment is dirtier than a pile of mud, than you should escape immediately because if the gym owner does not care enough to clean, then they clearly do not care about their patrons. #3: Freezing Or Warm The temperature of the gym can make all the difference in the fall, winter, spring and summer, so if you are uncomfortable with the temperature every time you hit the gym, then you may want to find another place to go. #4: Bouncing Prices If you routinely have to pay a wide variety of different prices, especially if they continue on going up with each passing year, then clearly the owner of the gym has one thing in mind, it is money and not the people who workout there. #5: Crappy Equipment Gym equipment is the most important reason to ever enter a gym, because that is the stuff you will be using on route to building the perfect body and if it is falling apart at the seams, than how are you going to build that perfect body? #6: The Staff We touched upon this briefly earlier in number one, but just for the sake of an add on, if the staff of the gym is scummier than the potentially dirty gym, then you need to turn around and exit the gym before speaking a single word. #7: Membership Staff This one is much like some stuff we discussed earlier, but a tad bit different because if the membership staff you talk to pushes a membership over your concerns, then they only care about one thing and that one thing is definitely not you. #8: Personal Training Not everybody who goes to the gym is in need of a personal trainer, but if you do need one and they are pushing their goals instead of helping you, find a new trainer right away. #9: Policy Followers Some gyms have policies about how long and how many reps other gym members can use the machines for, so you should find out if other members and the staff follow these policies, because many gyms should get return visits if the policy is followed.
  14. Prohormones act on the human body in multiple ways. This means just exercising and good diet isn’t enough to benefit from the best prohormone. Pro hormones augment protein synthesis within the body – the mechanism that helps add muscle mass. The following are the other effects of prohormones: • Heightened carbohydrate storage • Increased growth factor levels • Improved creatine synthesis • Lowered cortisol levels The aforementioned actions contribute to muscle-building. Moreover, the best prohormones help with recovery, which makes it easier to train even harder. Improved neural drive means increased focus and aggression when exercising. On the negative front, prohormone supplements can cause issues relating to elevated estrogen levels, excess androgen, lowered cortisol levels, and negative effects on various organs such as liver. With this information, let’s learn how to improve legal prohormones cycle effectiveness and maximize its benefits. Training Considerations Most people look up prohormone reviews and believe high cost prohormones for sale are self-sufficient and that the right training isn’t necessary. Proper training is important for extracting the maximum juice out of even the strongest prohormone. The majority doesn’t differentiate between pro hormone off- and on-cycle training regimens. Most individuals invariably use their increased strength to further elevate their training. This means, when using the best prohormones on the market, they are able to rapidly add strength each week, which motivates them at a psychological level. Such results are likely to make one feel extremely satisfied after a few weeks or a month. But there are other things to consider as well. First, testosterone levels would be low at the end of a prohormone cycle, meaning supporting/building muscle mass becomes much difficult. In fact, some level of muscle loss is also likely. The low testosterone levels also mean loss of positive psychological effect. This means you’d find it difficult to lift even normal weights during the off-cycle period. This is not the ideal scenario for any athlete or bodybuilder. To prevent such situations, it’s advised to buy prohormones and use them before taking on the heaviest weights. Even better, use prohormones when using light training weights. Another option for athletes or bodybuilders who don’t schedule their training program is to increase training volume when administering prohormones. As a result, the better recovery rates when on prohormones would let you increase both the sets and repetitions if needed, which would show its effects on the muscle tissue. Later, during the off cycle, head back again to your regular rep/set range and add more weights to the bar. On a physiological level, the reduction in heavier weights would prompt the body to not let go the gained muscle mass. Psychologically, being able to increase and maintain bar weight would provide greater satisfaction and assist with adherence and motivation, as a result. Diet and Nutrition Since prohormones can rapidly augment protein synthesis, some major changes to the diet are essential for maximizing gains. If most athletes take approximately 2 grams of protein per kilogram of bodyweight, this protein intake should be doubled to 4 grams when on cycle. Normally, such higher protein consumption won’t bring any additional benefits. The body will use what it needs and excrete the surplus. But, when on prohormones, the body’s intake or absorption capacity goes up some notches. In fact, it increases to a point where ultra-high protein becomes the norm. The required protein intake equips the body with the essential building blocks for building muscle at an increased rate, helping it capitalize on the favorable hormonal environment. Carbohydrate intake must be high too – fat consumption should be low. The little amount of fat entering the body won’t mess up the whole anabolic arrangement. In fact, the protein-rich diet would ensure the extra calories get used for building muscle instead of fat. However, people susceptible to putting on weight shouldn’t consider increasing calories by much. For athletes, the high protein and additional calories are necessary for obtaining the maximum possible benefits. Prohormones for sale are recommended with food – a fat-rich diet at that, to help with absorption. Grapefruit may replace fat, if needed. Grapefruit juice is, however, not recommended since the increasing bioavailability would stress out the liver. Essential Supplements To optimise prohormones usage, working out the right methods to utilize other drugs or supplements when on prohormones is equally important. First, stop taking all other supplements designed for boosting performance when you buy prohormones online or offline for consumption. This doesn’t mean the other supplements cause cross-contamination, but their usage is ideal for the post cycle treatment (PCT) phase when they would be required for offsetting performance loss post prohormone cycle discontinuation. As aforementioned, when on prohormones, there is nothing else needed to boost performance. However, since prohormones present their own side effects, you may use other supplements to offset those unfavorable effects. If you don’t wish to take additional supplements, then that’s fine too. Prohormones side effects shouldn’t be a major worry, using the supplements intelligently can help combat the ill effects. Anti-estrogen supplements would help resolve potential problems arising from specific prohormones turning into estrogen. Though these supplements are recommended post cycle, keeping them handy during the cycle is still wise, to combat estrogenic effects, if noted. As far as cardiovascular and liver concerns go, supplements would effectively help safeguard and regenerate the liver, along with normalizing cholesterol, lowering blood pressure, and aiding with other health concerns. In fact, some individuals even recommend taking these supplements during the off-cycle period to enhance overall health. People can use prohormones for their anabolic effects and to increase muscular strength and mass. However, all of those benefits shouldn’t come at the cost of poor general health.
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