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  1. Hello Star-girl Anavar and primobolon are the safer ones to go with for a safer response. I use Anavar myself and its definitely a favorite of mine strength gains and putting on lean muscle is what I am putting on. As for myself i generally take 50mg of anavar a day but ive been using anavar off and on for over 25 years now. I also love primobolon and buy it in pill form ive done injectable too but i find the primobolon pills work great too. i take 20mg of primobolon every day obviously beginning a cycle i dont recommend such a high dose of Anavar as what i take my body is used to it...hope this helps...
  2. A very interesting read:: Research and psychiatrist Ingrid Amalia Havnes interviewed female bodybuilders and has looked into how their use of certain doping substances has impacted them physically, psychologically and socially. Havnes explored what caused the women to start using anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), the resulting side effects and how they dealt with the adverse effects. «This is a touchy matter. The women encounter plenty of stigmatization. So, they commonly don’t disclose their use of anabolic steroids to their family, friends inside and outside of their training environment,» explains Havnes. Many of the women were ashamed and suffered social problems linked to several of the side effects. But they could also feel what they deemed the positive effects from using these artificial testosterones. «It’s important to understand that many encounter positive effects in this period of their lives. That can make it hard to quit using the substances,» says Havnes. The study is one of few undertaken regarding women who use such steroids. Havnes carried out the study together with a research group at Oslo University Hospital researching AAS. She also works at the hospital treating patients who wish to quit using these steroids. Little knowledge about the women Anabolic-androgenic steroids are an artificially manufactured testosterone, used to increase muscle volume and strength. Their use was banned by law in Norway in 2013. Havnes and her colleagues conducted thorough interviews of 16 women who were current or former AAS users. Information is available from ample research regarding the specific side effects women risk when using these steroids. But little research has been directed at how women feel about these changes. SSA use and the damage it does to men has been more copiously researched. Havnes points out that women who use anabolic steroids are a difficult group to reach. «Some of the side effects the women encountered were more easily neutralized than others. Deep voices were considered disgraceful by many,» says Ingrid Amalia Havnes at Oslo University Hospital. (Photo: Private) Masculine features and shame All the women who participated in the study experienced a number of undesired masculine traits with their use. Many were unprepared for this. Increased facial hair, smaller breasts, a deeper voice and enlarged clitoris were among the negative effects. «This inflicted them with shame, reduced self-esteem and social problems,» says Havnes. Over half in fitness circles Ten of the women were from fitness or bodybuilding circles and had participated in regional, national or international competitions. «The other six had not been engaged in such competitions, but they worked out with weights in combination with using AAS to achieve the bodies they sought,» says Havnes. Ten women had cut out the steroids and six were still using them. In recent decades the female body ideal has changed in many minds from a slender to a muscular physique. «This can have contributed to those involved in fitness circles being exposed to use of anabolic steroids,» says Havnes. Stronger and less body fat Most said they had started with anabolic steroids because they wanted bigger muscles and less body fat. Several who competed began with AAS after finding that the effect of working out had stagnated after years of intense training. Some had only engaged in training for a short while and wanted a shortcut to progress in building muscle. This goal included both participants with and without fitness or bodybuilding competitions, explains Havnes. Depended on male advice Most of the women in the study were introduced to AAS by male partners who also used the drug, or by friends or coaches/trainers. The mean age of the women was 23 when they started as users. They took the drugs in the form of pills or injections. They took lower dosages than men do, generally taking periodic breaks. But they all encountered unwanted side effects, among some even after an impulsive, short-term use. Many of the masculine traits persisted after they stopped using the hormone drugs. «It is worrisome that the women trusted the knowhow of these men with regard to dosages, which drugs they used and the duration of the treatments,» says Havnes. The substances can lead to serious physical and psychological side effects, such as cardiovascular diseases, depression, anxiety and psychoses. «The women were generally not too concerned about the risks for their livers or hearts. They were more afraid of masculinizing side effects,» says Havnes. Many had breast implants Smaller breasts and more facial and body hair were common side effects. Some were troubled by problems with facial acne. «Their breasts could shrink because of insufficient subcutaneous fat and the impact of steroids on breast tissue,» explains Havnes. But the women experienced these side effects as easier to deal with than others. «They could neutralize this by removing undesirable hair growth and getting breast implants. Most of those who competed had these implants,» says Havnes. Ashamed of deeper voices The women were more concerned about their deeper voices. «There were examples of the voice getting so deep and gravelly that when they placed order on the phone, the person at the other end thought they were a man,» says Havnes. Many felt ashamed about their deeper voices and regretted the substance use on these grounds. Few of the women communicated openly about their use of AAS with their families or friends inside and outside fitness circles. So, the change in voice could be what tipped others off about their use of the illegal substance. Some did inform that their voices got less deep after quitting use of the drug but it still had not returned to its former, feminine pitch. Bigger muscles and sexual desire The women who had more impulsively opted to use steroids were very unprepared for the resulting masculine traits. Six of the women still used the steroids and felt the desired effect overshadowed the adverse side effects. Most of them reported an increased libido after usage and they considered this a positive factor. But that was contingent on their life situation. «It depended on whether they were in a relationship. Those who were with a man who also used steroids were particularly pleased by the increased desire,» says Havnes. Increased libido was contrarily felt as negative for those lacking a partner or if the usage led to genital changes. Clitoris grew, periods stopped Many found that their clitoris and to some extent their labia had grown. An enlarged clitoris reduced their self-esteem. But these reactions were partly linked to how their partner reacted. If the partner was positive about the change this could counterbalance some of the women’s negative feelings. Some experienced a tightening of their genitals. «This could make intercourse difficult,» says Havnes. AAS usage also led to irregular menstruation or its total cessation. But this was not viewed as a problem - on the contrary. The stoppage of menstruation was a sign that the drugs were effective. When their periods returned, they took that as a sign that it was safe to start using the AAS again. Felt better psychologically Anabolic-androgenic steroids also led to psychological changes which the women could deem positive. Many revealed that they had become more self-assured and fit. Many gained control of difficult emotions that had afflicted them, for instance serious traumas. Reduced empathy and emotional flattening were experienced by some as positive changes. «One of the women said this helped her to isolate herself and focus on her education, job, work-outs and preparations for competitions,» says Havnes. Many of the women had been troubled with anxiety and the feelings of inferiority. Many said that being part of a gym and training environment was important for feeling they were in control; they lost their anxiety when they started with steroids. Many also had been plagued with eating disorders, and they felt it was healthier to have a muscular body fuelled on steroids than starving themselves to get thin. However, some of the women who had used AAS for a long time suffered mental problems and serious physical disorders. This prompted them to quit using the drug. That said, their social belonging to training circles was bolstered by the progress they made using steroids. Right to help without police involvement The researcher says users are not helped by condemnation. «We have to understand that many enjoy a positive effect for a stretch of their lives when using AAS,» says Havnes. She would like to encourage MDs and health officials to ask questions. «The women who have used steroids might make appointments with their doctor to treat acne, missed periods or psychological afflictions from long-time use. It’s important for health personnel to query whether they use AAS, what motivated them to do so and whether they want help to quit,» she says. Havnes asserts that health personnel must meet users with knowledge without condemnation or stigmatization. Participants in the study The participants were recruited via social media in open and hidden forum groups, posters and flyers. Three of the participants were coaches or personal trainers. Seven were students or worked health or other care services. Three worked within education or studied for jobs in that sector. Ages ranged from 19 to 46 when they were interviewed. On average they had used AAS for eight years before quitting or being interviewed by the researchers. Most had used the drug for periods off and on. A few had used AAS continuously from one to five years. The investigation is part of a larger study about long-term use of anabolic steroids and its effect on the brain and behaviour, led by Astrid Bjørnebekk from Rusforsk, Oslo University Hospital. Ingrid Havnes works at Nasjonal kompetansetjeneste TSB, which deals with multidisciplinary specialized treatment of substance abuse and dependency disorders at the Oslo University Hospital. Outlawed in 2013 When anabolic steroids were included in Norway’s laws and national approaches to treating substance abuse in 2013, users were simultaneously offered help in quitting and receiving treatment of their physical and psychological side effects in the specialist health services. Oslo University Hospital provides individual information conversations about health risks and treatment. To date they have had such meetings with 600 anabolic steroid users and their families, informs Havnes. In these they are told the health services do not inform the police or their employer about their usage of the illegal substance. Nevertheless, the criminalisation of anabolic steroids and other doping substances is felt to have erected a barrier against contact with the health services, according to male users of the substances. Translated by Glenn Ostling Reference: Ingrid Amalia Havnes et al.: Anabolic-androgenic steroid use among women – A qualitative study on experiences of masculinizing, gonadal and sexual effects. International Journal of Drug Policy, 28 July, 2020.
  3. Ibutamoren mesylate (MK-0677), an orally active nonpeptide growth hormone (GH) secretagogue, stimulates GH release through a pituitary and hypothalamic receptor that is different from the GH-releasing hormone receptor. We evaluated the safety and tolerability and the GH-insulin-like growth factor (IGF) responses to two dosages of oral ibutamoren mesylate given to children with GH deficiency for 7 to 8 days. The patients, 18 prepubertal children (15 male, 3 female) with idiopathic GH deficiency, had a chronologic age of 10.6 +/- 0.8 years (mean +/- SD), bone age of 7.4 +/- 0.7 years, growth velocity < 10th percentile for age, height < 10th percentile for age, and a maximum GH response of < or = 10 microg/L to two different GH stimulation tests. The children were assigned as follows to one of three treatment groups with ibutamoren mesylate: 0.2 mg/kg per day for 7 days (days 1-7 or 8-14) and matching placebo for the alternate 7 days (groups I and II, respectively) or 0.8 mg/kg per day for 7 days (days 8-14, group III). On day 15 all patients received an 0.8-mg/kg dose of ibutamoren mesylate. Patients in groups I and II were studied first to assess safety at the low dose before advancement to the high dose. Hormonal profiles were evaluated on day -1 (baseline) and day 15, and the results were expressed as the change from baseline within each group. After administration of ibutamoren mesylate 0.8 mg/kg for 8 days (group III), the median increases (on day 15) from baseline were as follows: 3.8 microg/L (range, 0 to 34.3) for serum GH peak concentration (P = .001), 4.3 microg x h/L (range, 1.3 to 35.6) for the GH area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to 8 hours (AUC(0-8)) (P < .001), 12 microg/L (range, -4 to 116) for serum IGF-I (P = .01), and 0.4 microg/L (range, -0.9 to 1.5) for serum IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) (P = .01). There was no change in serum prolactin, glucose, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, thyrotropin, peak serum cortisol, and insulin concentrations or 24-hour urinary free cortisol after administration of 0.8 mg/kg per day of ibutamoren mesylate for 8 days. We conclude that short-term administration of ibutamoren mesylate can increase GH, IGF-I, and IGFBP-3 levels in some children with GH deficiency. Thus this compound is applicable for testing its effect on growth velocity.
  4. Researchers at the University of Virginia Health System report that a daily single oral dose of an investigational drug, MK-677, increased muscle mass in the arms and legs of healthy older adults without serious side effects, suggesting that it may prove safe and effective in reducing age-related frailty. Published in the November 4, 2008 issue of Annals of Internal Medicine, the study showed that levels of growth hormone (GH) and of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF- I) in seniors who took MK-677 increased to those found in healthy young adults. The drug restored 20 percent of muscle mass loss associated with normal aging. "Our study opens the door to the possibility of developing treatments that avert the frailty of aging," explains Dr. Michael O. Thorner, a nationally recognized researcher of growth hormone regulation and a professor of internal medicine and neurosurgery at UVA. "The search for anti-frailty medications has become increasingly important because the average American is expected to live into his or her 80s, and most seniors want to stay strong enough to remain independent as they age." Funded by the National Institutes of Health, the two-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled, modified-crossover study involved 65 men and women ranging in age from 60 to 81. The study drug, MK-677, mimics the action of ghrelin, a peptide that stimulates the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). Drug developers are focusing on GHSR because it plays an important role in the regulation of growth hormone and appetite. They think it may prove to be an excellent treatment target for metabolic disorders such as those related to body weight and body composition. According to Dr. Thorner, the UVA research was a "proof-of-concept" study that sets the stage for a larger and longer clinical trial to determine whether MK-677 is effective in people who are frail and to assess its long term safety.
  5. GH increases bone turnover and stimulates osteoblast activity. We hypothesized that administration of MK-677, an orally active GH secretagogue, together with alendronate, a potent inhibitor of bone resorption, would maintain a higher bone formation rate relative to that seen with alendronate alone, thereby generating greater enhancement of bone mineral density (BMD) in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. We determined the individual and combined effects of MK-677 and alendronate administration on insulin-like growth factor I levels and biochemical markers of bone formation (osteocalcin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase) and resorption [urinary N-telopeptide cross-links (NTx)] for 12 months and BMD for 18 months. In a multicenter, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, 18-month study, 292 women (64–85 yr old) with low femoral neck BMD were randomly assigned in a 3:3:1:1 ratio to 1 of 4 daily treatment groups for 12 months: MK-677 (25 mg) plus alendronate (10 mg); alendronate (10 mg); MK-677 (25 mg); or a double dummy placebo. Patients who received MK-677 alone or placebo through month 12 received MK-677 (25 mg) plus alendronate (10 mg) from months 12–18. All other patients remained on their assigned therapy. All patients received 500 mg/day calcium. The primary results, except for BMD, are provided for month 12. MK-677, with or without alendronate, increased insulin-like growth factor I levels from baseline (39% and 45%; P < 0.05 vs. placebo). MK-677 increased osteocalcin and urinary NTx by 22% and 41%, on the average, respectively (P < 0.05 vs. placebo). MK-677 and alendronate mitigated the reduction in bone formation compared with alendronate alone based on mean relative changes in serum osteocalcin (−40% vs. −54%; P < 0.05, combination vs. alendronate) and reduced the effect of alendronate on resorption (NTx) as well (−52% vs. −61%; P < 0.05, combination vs. alendronate). MK-677 plus alendronate increased BMD at the femoral neck (4.2% vs. 2.5% for alendronate; P < 0.05). However, similar enhancement was not seen with MK-677 plus alendronate in BMD of the lumbar spine, total hip, or total body compared with alendronate alone. GH-mediated side effects were noted in the groups receiving MK-677, although adverse events resulting in discontinuation from the study were relatively infrequent. In conclusion, the anabolic effect of GH, as produced through the GH secretagogue MK-677, attenuated the indirect suppressive effect of alendronate on bone formation, but did not translate into significant increases in BMD at sites other than the femoral neck. Although the femoral neck is an important site for fracture prevention, the lack of enhancement in bone mass at other sites compared with that seen with alendronate alone is a concern when weighed against the potential side effects of enhanced GH secretion. Issue Section: Article OSTEOPOROSIS IS A common and important cause of morbidity and mortality among postmenopausal women (1–3). Virtually all agents currently available to treat osteoporosis are primarily antiresorptive in mechanism (4–6). In contrast, several lines of evidence suggest that GH has a stimulatory effect on bone remodeling and could be useful in the treatment of osteoporosis due to its anabolic properties. GH stimulates osteoblast differentiation and proliferation in vitro (7). Depending on the species and cell lines, GH also increases osteoblast production of insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) (7) both of which are mitogenic, increase human osteoblast differentiation, and are probably important local regulators of bone remodeling (8). Furthermore, GH has been shown to stimulate bone formation and increase the strength of cortical bone in aged rats (9). Human aging is associated with declining serum concentrations of GH and IGF-I (10–12). This reduction may contribute to the decrease in bone mass that accompanies normal aging (13). Recombinant human GH (rhGH) increases markers of bone turnover, suggesting an overall increase in bone remodeling, in healthy and osteoporotic elderly women and GH-deficient (GHD) adults (14–19). Increased bone turnover has also been shown in GHD adults treated with rhGH based on histomorphometric measures (20). Although stimulation of skeletal dynamics did not result in increased trabecular bone volume, cortical thickness increased significantly. Whereas GH alone decreased bone mineral density (BMD) in GHD adults after 1 yr of treatment (21), continued treatment with rhGH increased BMD by 18 months in these patients (22). Initial decreases in bone mass after GH administration were ascribed to the hormone’s effect to accelerate both sides of the bone balance equation, formation and resorption, whereas the effect with continued administration was a net anabolic increase in bone density (23). Despite these effects in GHD individuals, GH administration has not consistently increased bone mass in the elderly (24–26). In one study, GH given for 6 months increased lumbar spine density by 1.6% in men older than 60 yr of age (24). In another study, administration of GH for 6 months increased bone mineral content by 0.9% in elderly men, although the researchers described the clinical consequence of this increase as unknown (25). Furthermore, administration of rhGH for 12 months to frail elderly men and women resulted in increased bone turnover with no increase (at an average daily dose of 0.003 mg/kg·day or less) or a decrease (at an average daily dose of >0.006 mg/kg·day) in BMD (26). MK-677 is an orally active nonpeptide spiropiperidine previously demonstrated to be functionally indistinguishable in vitro and in vivo (27) from GH-releasing peptide, a relatively selective GH secretagogue (28–30). MK-677 enhances the pulsatile release of GH, resulting in sustained elevations in IGF-I, and is well tolerated after oral administration in animals, healthy young men, and older men and women (27, 31–33). Furthermore, administration of MK-677 to elderly women for 9 weeks increased serum osteocalcin, a marker of bone formation, on the average by 29%, and urinary N-telopeptide cross-links (NTx), a marker of bone resorption, on the average by 25% (34). Alendronate is a potent nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate (35, 36) that increases bone mass (37, 38) and reduces the incidence of vertebral and other fractures, including those of the hip, in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (6, 37). Alendronate quickly acts to decrease bone resorption, reaching a plateau effect within 3 months based on a reduction in urinary NTx (39). This decrease in bone resorption is followed by a subsequent secondary reduction in bone formation, which plateaus within 3–6 months, as shown by a reduction in bone formation markers such as osteocalcin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP). This sequence of events is anticipated due to the well established coupling of bone resorption and formation (40). It was hypothesized that combining administration of a net anabolic agent such as a GH secretagogue and a bone resorption inhibitor such as alendronate might allow uncoupling of the indirect suppressive influence of alendronate on bone formation. If administration of MK-677 with alendronate resulted in less suppression of bone formation and similar effects on bone resorption relative to the effects of alendronate alone, combination treatment may increase bone mass beyond that seen with alendronate alone. This would be expected to result in a decreased risk of fractures associated with osteoporosis. We determined therefore the individual and combined effects of chronic administration of MK-677 and alendronate on IGF-I levels, biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption, and BMD in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. The percent change from baseline in serum osteocalcin and urinary NTx were the primary and secondary end points of the study, respectively. The percent change from baseline of the femoral neck BMD was the prespecified key BMD end point based on the balance of cortical and trabecular bone at this site. Subjects and Methods Subjects Two-hundred and ninety-two women (mean age, 72.1 yr; range, 64–85 yr) were selected for participation at 10 study centers. To be eligible for the study, subjects had to be postmenopausal (without menses for at least 4 yr), with a femoral neck BMD at least 2.0 sd below the mean peak value for healthy young women (<0.695 g/cm2 as measured by Hologic, Inc., Waltham, MA; model 1000W, 2000, or 4500), but no more than 3.0 sd below the age-specific mean. Other than osteoporosis, the patients were in good health. Patients with any fracture attributed to osteoporosis or any disease or drug therapy (including any GH, bisphosphonate, fluoride, glucocorticoid, or estrogen therapy within the past 6 months or bisphosphonate treatment at any time) potentially affecting bone metabolism were excluded. The following were additional exclusion criteria: abnormal renal function, elevated fasting glucose, a history of cancer or major upper gastrointestinal mucosal erosive disease, or low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. The women were recruited by direct mailings or telephone contacts and advertisements in the media. Ethical review committee approval was obtained at each participating site, and written informed consent was obtained from each subject. Study design This was a multicenter, randomized, double blind, placebocontrolled, parallel group, 6-month study with planned extensions from 6–12 and 12–18 months. After a 2-week, single blind placebo/calcium carbonate (OSCAL 500, Marion Merrell Dow, Kansas City, MO) run-in period, 292 women were randomly assigned in a 3:3:1:1 ratio to 1 of 4 daily treatment groups (Table 1). The 4 treatment groups from months 0–12 were MK-677 (25 mg) plus alendronate (10 mg); alendronate (10 mg); MK-677 (25 mg); and double dummy placebo. Patients who received MK-677 or placebo through month 12 received MK-677 (25 mg) plus alendronate (10 mg) from months 12–18 while retaining the study blind (Table 1). Patients in the other two groups continued their assigned therapy. Table 1. Treatments n1 Rx months 0–122 Rx months 12–182 Group I 111 MK-677 (25 mg)/alendronate (10 mg) MK-677 (25 mg)/alendronate (10 mg) Group II 109 MK-677 placebo/alendronate (10 mg) MK-677 placebo/alendronate (10 mg) Group III 36 MK-677 (25 mg)/alendronate placebo MK-677 (25 mg)/alendronate (10 mg) Group IV 36 MK-677 placebo/alendronate placebo MK-677 (25 mg)/alendronate (10 mg) 1 Number enrolled in the study. 2 All patients receive OSCAL 500. View Large Each patient received three tablets per day. Patients were instructed to take alendronate (10 mg) or matching placebo orally once daily while in a fasting state after rising in the morning (at least 30 min before breakfast) and to avoid lying down for at least 30 min after dosing. MK-677 (25 mg) or matching placebo was taken at least 30 min after alendronate/alendronate placebo regardless of food intake. A 500-mg elemental calcium supplement (as calcium carbonate, OSCAL 500, Marion Merrell Dow) was ingested with dinner daily to ensure nutritional adequacy of calcium for all patients. Compliance was monitored by pill count and patient report of missed doses. Patients were evaluated every 4 weeks until month 3 and then at 6- to 12-week intervals, with a possible total study participation of 18 months. Biochemical analyses Urine (fasting second morning voided specimen) chemistry values (N-telopeptide cross-links and creatinine), special serum bone biochemistry assessments (osteocalcin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase), and hormones (including IGF-I) were obtained at baseline (after 2-week placebo run-in, before study drug) and at months 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 of treatment. The primary comparison of biochemical markers of bone turnover was after 12 months of treatment, allowing comparison among the four original treatment groups (i.e. combination, alendronate, MK-677, or placebo). Serum IGF-I was measured by a competitive binding RIA after acid-ethanol extraction (Endocrine Sciences, Inc., Tarzana, CA). At a mean serum concentration of approximately 36.6–40.5 nmol/L, the within- and between-assay coefficients of variation (CVs) were 5.9% and 8.2%, respectively. Osteocalcin was measured using an immunoradiometric assay (CIS International, Pacific Biometrics, Seattle, WA) with interassay CVs of 4.3% and 5.5% at serum concentrations of 1.5 and 3.4 nmol/L, respectively. BSAP was measured using an immunoradiometric assay (Tandem-R Ostase, Hybritech, Inc., San Diego, CA) with an interassay CV of 7.4%. The manufacturer reports these values in mass units; this is the standard unit of expression in medical literature for BSAP. NTx were measured using the Osteomark assay from Ostex International, Inc. (Seattle, WA), with an interassay CV of 4.0% and are reported after correction for creatinine [NTx/Cr, nanomoles of bone collagen equivalent (BCE) per mmol creatinine]. BMD measurements and radiographic assessment BMDs of the femoral neck, hip, lumbar spine, and total body were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry using Hologic, Inc., model 1000W, 2000, or 4500. BMD was determined twice (femoral neck and lumbar spine) or once (total body) at baseline and after 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months of treatment. The primary comparison among treatments for BMD was after 18 months of treatment to allow for the maximal duration of treatment with MK-677/alendronate and alendronate alone. A common, standardized procedure for patient positioning and utilization of software was incorporated into the QA manual procedures provided by the central QA center. The baseline scan was evaluated before follow-up hip scan. Patient positioning was duplicated as closely as possible, and identical scan parameters were used. As the scan was acquired, the identical starting point and femur positioning used at baseline were verified. If the match of baseline and follow-up acquisitions was not optimal, then the patient was repositioned or rescanned. Internal dual energy x-ray absorptiometry calibration was maintained at each center, and calibration across centers was performed using Hologic, Inc., spine and linearity phantoms. Hologic, Inc., Medical Data Management Services was responsible for handling all aspects of quality assurance for BMD measurements, including assessment of consistency of acquisition, analysis, and data management at the study sites without knowledge of treatment assignment. Lateral thoracic and lumbar spine radiographs were evaluated at each center for the presence of prevalent or incident vertebral fractures at baseline and after 12 and 18 months of treatment. Radiographic fractures were defined as an x-ray report from an expert reader noting one or more definite fractures or as a 20% or more decrease in the height of a vertebral body and at least a 4-mm decrease in vertebral height. Assessment of treatment safety Patients were questioned about intercurrent health problems at each visit. Standard clinical evaluations and laboratory analyses, including hematological and chemistry values, were performed at least every 6 weeks during the first 9 months of treatment and every 3 months thereafter. Physical examinations were performed at baseline and after 12 and 18 months of treatment. Radiographs were obtained during the study if needed to assess a clinical syndrome consistent with fracture. All adverse events (including clinical reports of fracture) were recorded by the physician investigator, who rated each event as to whether it appeared causally related to the study drug. Study drug referred collectively to any combination of MK-677/MK-677 placebo, alendronate/alendronate placebo, and calcium supplement. Statistical methods The biochemical markers included osteocalcin (primary end point), urine NTx (secondary end point), and BSAP. Data were transformed to ln (fraction of baseline) for the analysis and backtransformed to percent change from baseline for presentation. The analysis included the effects of the four treatments on femoral neck BMD (prespecified key BMD end point) as well as lumbar spine, total hip, and total body BMD. The percent change from baseline was analyzed. The percent change from baseline was analyzed with ANOVA with factors for the effect of center, treatment, and treatment by center interaction. If the P value from the F test for the interaction effect was greater than 0.1, the interaction term was dropped from the ANOVA model before assessment of the treatment effect. Also before assessment of the treatment effect, appropriate diagnostic tests were performed to ensure that the data conformed to the statistical assumptions of common variance and normality of distribution. Patients who completed 18 months of the study and had valid BMD measurements at baseline and month 18 were included in the analysis of the change from baseline BMD to month 18. A per protocol approach was taken, which excluded data from patients with serious protocol deviations and made no attempt to replace missing values. The per protocol analysis was specified because it provided the best evaluation of the scientific model underlying the protocol. Comparisons were accomplished using the t test computed with the least square means (LSMEANS) and root mean squared error provided by SAS PROC GLM. Data are reported as the mean ± se. There was 80% power (Ι = 0.05, by two-tailed test) with a sample size of 60 patients in the MK-677/alendronate treatment group and 60 patients in the alendronate alone treatment group to detect between group differences from baseline in osteocalcin, NTx, femoral neck BMD, and lumbar spine BMD of 17, 9, 2.4, and 2.0 percentage points, respectively. Accounting for patients in the analysis Four patients were excluded from the 18-month analysis of BMD data due to new-onset concurrent therapy including thyroid, estrogen, and steroid therapy. Patients who completed 12 months of the study and had bone turnover marker measurements at baseline and month 12 were included in the analysis of the change from baseline to month 12. Four patients were excluded from the latter analysis due to extended periods off study drug (failure to take >75% of doses, as prespecified in the data analysis plan), and seven patients were excluded due to new-onset concurrent therapy or missing biochemical marker data at the 12 month point. All patients with available data were included in the safety analysis.
  6. For many years, Pyramid Training has been one of the gold standards for bodybuilders who want to maximize their gains without using things like steroids (natural steroids are OK, though!). However, recent research and developments seem to suggest that the exact opposite, reverse pyramiding, is also true. Reverse Pyramid Training (RPT), as it’s called, is also a fantastic way to help improve your gains and get the most out of your workouts. If you want to learn more about RPT so you can decide whether or not it’s something you want to try out, then read on! What is Reverse Pyramid Training (RPT)? RPT training is basically the opposite of the traditional pyramid training. Pyramid training starts with low weights and higher reps for the first set. Throughout the workout, you lead to higher weights with fewer reps. Reverse pyramid training, on the other hand, involves starting at your heaviest for the first set, usually at a lower number of reps. After that first heavy set, you pyramid downwards by gradually reducing the amount of weight and increasing the number of reps for set 2, set 3, etc. Both of these types of training are different from standard hypertrophy training, which focuses on trying to do the same amount of reps, with the same amount of weight, for each set. RPT is believed to be one of the most effective ways of helping people break through plateaus, in addition to being a great way to improve muscle gains. The reason that RPT is so popular is that it helps people increase their 1-rep max quickly. When your muscles are ‘fresh,’ so to speak – meaning you haven’t started to strain them by working out – you’re capable of lifting more weight, plain and simple. Common sense alone is enough to tell you that this is the best time for you to lift your heaviest weights. RPT is just a style of lifting that follows that common sense, and your body’s natural rhythm. Start with your heaviest weight, and continue to lower the weight as you get more exhausted. How to do RPT training? You can be pretty non-specific when you’re doing RPT training if you want. Basically, as long as you’re starting with heavier lifts and stripping weight off the bar in between sets, you’re doing reverse pyramid training. However, there are some guidelines and recommendations that are often followed by people who are interested in RPT. A lot of these techniques were popularized by Martin Berkhan, who was one of the first trainers to bring RPT to public attention. Some of the most important and widely-accepted guidelines for RPT training include: Stick to 3 full-body workouts every week. Have a day of rest in between each workout. Most people use the simple Monday – Wednesday – Friday workout schedule. Focus on two main lifts for each workout. Build the rest of your workout based around these two lifts, for example, squats and chin-ups. Strip weight off the bar after each set. Many people find that 10% of your starting weight is a reasonable amount to strip off the bar. Increase reps as you strip weight. If you’re stripping 10 lbs off the bar each set, you can increase the number of reps you’re doing by 2. Rest between sets for somewhere between 2-5 minutes. This is one of the reasons that RPT is different from other, more aggressive training practices. Follow double progression. Once you’re able to comfortably do all the reps in a given set, it’s time to increase the weight! If you’re following these basic guidelines then you’re going to be doing some pretty solid RPT training. At least, according to some people. It would seem that there are a variety of different schools of thought regarding what RPT is. Another way to look at RPT is a form of training that involves bringing yourself (almost) to failure repeatedly, regardless of what weight you’re working at. In this form of RPT, you do your top (heaviest) set first and push yourself until you fail (meaning until you can’t do another rep without good form.) Then, reduce the weight a bit, and do reps until failure. Repeat this one more time, then switch exercises. For consistency, we’ll refer to the previous style of RPT for our examples. Example Reverse Pyramid Training routine Naturally, everyone’s going to have their own RPT workout routine. This is important. The reverse pyramid training results that you get should be those which cater to your specific goals and desires. However, it’s still a good idea to have a basic reverse pyramid training template. Here’s a simple sample that you can easily adapt to your workout routine. This RPT workout example covers all three of the week’s workouts. Monday: Bench press. 3 sets total. Start with 6-8 reps, strip off 10%. Next, do 8-10 reps, strip off 10%. Then, 10-12 reps. Do this 3 times. Barbell rows. Following the same formula: 3 sets of 6-8 reps, 8-10 reps, then 10-12 reps. Skullcrushers. 2 sets of 10 reps each. Barbell curls. 2 sets of 10 reps each. Wednesday: Front squats: 3 sets of 6 reps each, then 8 reps, then 10 reps. Chin-ups: 3 sets of 6 reps each, then 8 reps, then 10 reps. Hanging leg raises: 2 sets of 10 reps each. Barbell curls: 2 sets of 10 reps each. Friday: Conventional deadlifts: 2 sets of 6 reps, then 8 reps. Overheard presses: 3 sets of 6 reps, then 8 reps, then 10 reps. Lateral raises: 2 sets of 10 reps each. Overhead extensions: 2 sets of 10 reps each. Reverse Pyramid Training benefits There are several benefits that you can enjoy when it comes to Reverse Pyramid Training. These include: RPT is a minimalist form of training and can be enjoyed by people who only have a few days per week to work out. RPT can be done with only 3 workouts per week, and each of these workouts doesn’t even need to last an hour. RPT is quick and effective. If you are the type of trainer who craves intensity and adrenaline, RPT allows you to get that hit without over-exerting yourself or damaging your body. Reverse Pyramid Training downsides While RPT might have some interesting benefits, it’s not necessarily the best form of exercise that you’ll ever find. There are arguably more downsides to RPT than there are benefits. Research shows that RPT training is just about as effective as standard hypertrophy training. Wait, what? That’s right – in fact, in the study I just linked to, the group practicing regular hypertrophy training actually gained 0.1% more muscle. While that’s hardly anything, that also shows that there’s not really any serious advantage to using pyramid training for building muscle. RPT isn’t great for beginners. You need to make sure that you have strong form before you attempt to do intense workouts like this because you’re so often bringing yourself close to the point of failure. Without prior training and exercise, this can cause injuries. RPT isn’t sustainable and you’ll probably plateau relatively quickly (although some people have reported success with using RPT to push themselves out of a plateau). Either way, bringing yourself this close to failure every time you work out isn’t great for your recovery time – even if you’re eating great recovery foods – since your muscles will require a longer time to repair. If you do RPT as your regular workout, eventually your muscles are going to stop growing because they’re not getting enough time to rebuild. Another downside – highly subjective one – is the idea that your maximum is actually a variable term. For example, your maximum on a day when you’re highly invigorated, just found a new girlfriend, and are surrounded by supportive bodybuilders screaming encouragement at you would probably be higher than your max on a day when you’re depressed and lonely. This alone shakes the foundation of RPT. RPT focuses on maxing out, which can be mentally stressful. You might start to dread the workout itself if you know that you’re going to have to be maxing out every time you lift a weight. This mental fatigue can start to stress you out before you even get to the gym. As you can see, the list of drawbacks is quite big. While RPT might have some specific applications, and may indeed be preferred by some people, it’s not necessarily the best workout plan for general usage. Conclusion RPT is an effective style of workout training, but it doesn’t have that many benefits compared to any other type of training. It’ll certainly help you put on more muscle and will keep you fit and toned, but it tends to cause people to plateau. That, coupled with the fact that RPT is mentally strenuous and not any better for you than less demanding workouts, meaning that it’s not for everyone. However, if you like to really feel your workouts, or crave the high-intensity feelings of a powerful workout, RPT may be perfect for you.
  7. As a body-builder, there are a lot of short term benefits of using steroids. The only problem is that these are short-lived and actually point towards long term medical complications. Using steroids can have the following effects: 1 – Increase in muscle size In 2007, research directed towards the effects of testosterone enanthate pointed out that there are apparent differences on muscle mass and strength training performances when the steroid is administered. Measuring the performance of the participants in various strength training exercises, the study concluded that the body mass after 6 weeks of the study was significantly higher. In addition to this, the research study reported that the participants of the study injected with the steroid performed far better at exercises like cycling and bench presses than those who didn’t. So there is a reason to say that steroids can help with improving muscle mass. 2 – Increase in performance and body mass Another study conducted in 2009 observing the effects of testosterone enanthate, pointed out that people who used the steroid would perform better at strength related exercise. In addition to these effects, the steroid was also linked to an increase in body mass and muscle size across the body. 3 – Better healing rates Many athletes use steroids to help them come back from injuries faster. Many steroids, although not associated with improving performance as such, have been known to improve muscle healing rates. Research directed at the effects of synthetic testosterone showed that these can significantly improve muscle recovery. Side effects of steroids for women Considering how anabolic steroids are found to naturally occur in males, there are some very intense side-effects of steroid use for women. These are often accompanied with the side-effects that occur for men. The results can be devastating as women begin to feel like they look more masculine than before and there are definite biological/psychological changes. This is also accompanied by an increased risk of developing long term medical illnesses which could very well be fatal. There are both psychological and physiological side-effects of anabolic steroids for women. These include: The physiological side-effects The physiological side-effects of extended steroid use in women include: Deeper voices Decreased Breast Size Enlargement of the Clitoris Variation in the Menstrual Cycle Male Pattern Hair growth Male Pattern Baldness Dysfunctional Libido In addition to these side-effects, female steroid users are also much more likely to develop the following medical conditions: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Adrenal Gland Dysfunction Cushing’s Syndrome The psychological side-effects The psychological side-effects of prolonged steroid use include: Mania and Depression Aggression and Violence Suicidal tendencies Steroid Dependence Body Dysmorphic disorders Substance abuse 5 Steroids that are the best for women Assuming that you’re already well aware of the risks associated with steroid use and still want to try them out, then you might as well use steroids that are better for the use of female athletes. This does not in any way eliminate the risks and the side-effects of anabolic steroids, however, it’s better to use these considering how risky the whole business is. The steroids that we list down have been widely used by female athletes, without too much psychological or physiological damage. For purposes of the reader, we’ll also specify the recommended doses, benefits and side-effects of each. These include: Anavar Dosage The appropriate dosage of Anavar for women is one that consistently increases across cycles. In specific, the dosage is as follows: 2.5 mg in the 1st and 2nd weeks 5.0 mg in the 3rd and 4th weeks 10 mg in the 5th week 15 mg in the 6th week 5mg and 10 mg in the 7th and 8th weeks respectively. Benefits Anavar works great if you’re trying to cut weight. The benefits of the steroid are as follows: It’s one of the best weight loss steroids for women in the market. It increases strength for longer and more intense workouts It increases endurance so that you can work out for longer periods of time. Side-effects The side-effects of Anavar include: The steroid can make you feel lethargic and tired. Might mess with your libido. It can make the skin very oily. It can cause high cholesterol and high blood pressure. Mood swings. Nausea and vomiting. Potentially irreversible balding. For more information about the side effects of Anavar, check our Anavar side effects post! Winstrol Dosage The recommended dosage for Winstrol is a small dose of 10mg per day. Some female athletes can even go up to 20mg if they engage in physically intense sports. Sometimes the steroid is stacked with Anavar to help achieve the optimal effects. Benefits The steroid doesn’t cause water retention and resultant swellings like other steroids do. It builds strength as well as muscle mass. It increases speed, agility, and endurance to help you work out longer and harder. Side-Effects Long-term use of the steroid may cause liver failure. It might enhance the development of male characteristics, particularly apparent in women. It may cause high cholesterol and blood pressure. It might cause a decrease in libido. The steroid might also cause hair loss and skin problems. For more information about the side effects of Winstrol, check our Winstrol side effects post! Primobolan Dosage Female athletes take up to 50-100mg of Primobolan a week, with 5-10mg of the steroid daily. Benefits It’s great for shedding weight and used in cutting cycles. Helps preserve muscle mass. It’s usually very well tolerated by female athletes. Side-effects The steroid has been known to cause acne. It may cause enhancement in permanent male characteristics. It might also increase the propensity for aggression and violence. The steroid might also cause insomnia. Users also report hair loss. Some female users also complain of variations in menstrual cycles. Anadrol Doses The prescribed dose is 1-5 mg/kg of body weight per day. So if your weight is around 60kgm then you should take between 60-300mg of Anadrol per day. Benefits It’s one of the best weight gain steroids in the market. It improves body strength and endurance. It increases the delivery of oxygen to the muscles. Side-Effects The side-effects of Anadrol include: Diarrhea It may cause restlessness. It may also cause insomnia Mood Swings Water retention causes swelling in the ankles and feet. Reduced libido. Acne. For more information about the side effects of Anadrol, check our Anadrol side effects post! Nandrolone (Deca Durabolin) Doses Nandrolone is administered directly into the muscles to help promote muscle growth. The recommended dose for female athletes is 50mg a week, for a total of 4-6 weeks. Prolonged use can cause the development of virilization (Enhancement of male sex characteristics). Benefits Promotes muscle growth. Increases strength and reduces the impact of workouts on the joints. Improves healing rates and increases red blood cell count for greater oxygenation. Improves endurance for longer workouts. Side-Effects Water retention may cause swelling. Increased hair growth, the deepening of your voice and the development of other potentially permanent male characteristics. Acne. Increased libido. Insomnia Nausea Liver dysfunction Enlargement of the clitoris For more information about the side effects of Deca Durabolin, check our Deca Durabolin side effects post! Safer and legal alternatives Depending on your bodybuilding goals, there are other alternatives that you can try out that don’t have the side-effects that steroids usually have. You may have to compromise on the efficacy of your workouts, yet in the long run that is a cost that anyone can afford to pay. The alternatives we will mention can be used to put on or reduce weight. Most of these are actual substitutes for the steroids we’ve mentioned above: Steroids for building muscle and increasing strength: Decaduro (substitute for nandrolone) Anadrole (substitute for Anadrol) Steroids for cutting mass: Winsol (substitute for Winstrol) Anvarol (substitute for Anavar) If you’re not interested in these bodybuilding supplements, you might want to try out the selection of natural bodybuilding supplements for women. Each item in their inventory has been tailor-made to help you meet your bodybuilding goals, with inconsequential side-effects. Conclusion In conclusion, trying out steroids in general is considered a health risk and should be avoided. Girls on steroids stand to lose a lot if they begin to use them to improve their physiques during their workouts. The effects of steroids on women are often far more disastrous than for men. Whether you’re a competitive bodybuilder or an enthusiast, your pursuit for the ideal body should never overcome your personal well-being. After all, you work out to become your best self, but what is there to work out for if you can’t enjoy the great body you’ve worked on. In case you still feel like you want to use these, you can use the steroids we’ve mentioned in the blog. These are some of the best female steroids in the market, each for weight loss or weight gain. Just make sure that you take care of yourself and visit your doctors immediately if you experience side-effects from female steroids.
  8. I am about to order my first order of Cardarine so thats good to know as theres not alot of information about sarms out there. I do however really love Mk677 both myself and my fiancee use it now plus im on my anavar and a little bit of test propionate...great results...
  9. Description: Discover a guide on the effectiveness of pre-workout supplements to maximize workout performance! Read on what supplements to take before a workout, safety, ingredients, and natural pre-workout supplements that you can rely on for results. Pre-workout supplements are a vital part of the diets of many fitness enthusiasts. Individuals who do high-demanding physical activities use these supplements to enhance their performance. There are plenty of pre-workout supplements out there. Yet, many wonder whether they are as effective as they claim to be. This article aims to help you understand what pre-workout supplements are, what's in them, and how to safely and smartly use them. What Are Pre-Workout Supplements? A pre-workout item is any product that you can have before starting a workout. People think that an excellent pre-workout supplement must come from the counter of a vitamin store in the form of a powder or a pill. It doesn't have to—a cup of black coffee consumed before a workout can be called a "pre-workout" too. No one likes to turn up to his or her workout feeling sluggish, tired, or unfocused. Pre-workout products aim to boost your energy, performance, focus, and recovery. On paper, they should give you the "boost" that you need to have a great workout. Yet, not all pre-workout supplements will meet your pre-workout needs and expectations. So, it's essential to understand the vital ingredients of a pre-workout supplement and pick the best product for the best results. What Supplements To Take Before Workout (Ingredients) Manufacturers often claim that their products are a result of a unique formula. However, when you look closer, the majority of pre-workout products contain similar core ingredients. These include substances athletes and weightlifters often consume, most notably, caffeine. Let’s take a look at some essential components that one must consider what is the best pre workout supplement for men and women. Caffeine Those who don't use pre-workout supplements can experience increased performance after drinking a coffee. Caffeine can increase endurance, fatigue, and metabolic rate irrespective of your choice of exercise. So it’s not a surprise that it’s a core ingredient of such products. Most popular pre-workouts contain high doses of caffeine. Some as high as 300mg per serving. Ideally, one should consume three milligrams of caffeine for every kilogram of body weight. For an average individual, that’s around 200mgs of caffeine or two cups of coffee. Creatine The substance that is naturally found in your body produces energy and increases muscular strength. Most pre-workout supplements contain Creatine. It also comes solely as a supplement that is popular among power athletes and weightlifters. Various studies confirm Creatine’s effects in enhancing muscle strength, recovery time, muscle mass, and performance. NO2 Boosters Nitrogen Dioxide boosters such as Arginine and Citrulline promote blood flow in your body. As a result, nutrients are delivered quickly, which paves the way for increased energy levels. BCAAs Branch chain amino acids are another essential ingredient found in popular pre-workouts. They have proven to improve performance, increase muscle recovery, and strength. Ingredients to Avoid in a Pre-Workout Supplement While most pre-workout products may not contain substances that are unhealthy, some do. Therefore, it's vital to understand components you should avoid when selecting a pre-workout. Sugar Alcohols & Artificial Sweeteners These ingredients enhance flavor while avoiding excess calories in pre-workout supplements. Yet, they can cause digestive problems such as bloat, gas, and diarrhea in some people. So, avoid going for pre-workouts containing high amounts of these ingredients. Unhealthy Amounts of Caffeine The healthy limit of caffeine for an average adult is around 400mg per day, according to a source on Sciencedirect.com. A scoop of some pre-workout supplements contains as much as 410mg of caffeine, which is over that limit. You should avoid such products to avoid health problems such as high blood pressure, heart problems, diabetes, trouble sleeping, and anxiety. Is It Safe to Use Pre-Workout Supplements? It's important to know what supplements to take before workouts without affecting your health. Therefore, your first step is to avoid any brand that doesn't disclose the amount of caffeine, sugar alcohols and artificial sweeteners in their product. Your next step should be to ensure that your daily intake of these substances doesn't go over the upper level advised for average adults. Remember that consuming high amounts of caffeine can lead to dehydration. So drink plenty of water after using safe pre-workout supplements. If you're someone who is pregnant or have high blood pressure, heart problems, anxiety, diabetes, or sleeping disorders, you should first consult your doctor before consuming such products. Do I Need Pre-Workout Supplements? There are natural pre-workout supplements that you can use. The simplest method is to drink a good glass of black coffee before a workout. Pre-training snacks that are high in carbs and low in fats and fiber also help. Pre-workout supplements can be expensive. You must use them consistently for them to be beneficial. Workout recovery supplements such as Creatine take time to contribute to muscle recovery, strength, and performance. So deciding to add safe pre-workout supplements to your diet adds a somewhat significant monthly expense. Conclusion: The methods you use to supplement your body are your personal preferences, depending on your diet and lifestyle. Do you need a pre-workout supplement to complete complicated training routines? Definitely, no. However, do pre-workout supplements help you go through such routines effectively? Yes, they do.
  10. As pioneers of low-cost fitness and breaking down the barriers to exercise, The Gym Group is backing the Government’s ‘Be Real’ campaign for body confidence by encouraging more women to take up strength training and challenging outdated attitudes to working out with weights. Statistics released by the Government’s ‘Be Real’ campaign highlighted that 87% of girls aged 11-21 think that women are judged more on their appearance than on their ability and women’s body satisfaction does not improve as they move toward and into midlife. As more positive role models are putting super waifs in the shade by promoting beautifully strong, healthy bodies, the latest research from The Gym Group underlines this positive national trend in changing attitudes. Figures show that more women are taking over the free weight areas and are enjoying the benefits associated with strength training traditionally dominated by their male counterparts. Jim Graham, The Gym’s Chief Operating Officer, comments: “Over the past three years we have been closely monitoring usage levels across our gym floors and have observed a significant increase in the number of women wanting to become beautifully strong as oppose to just ‘thin’. As a result, we are in the process of re-addressing our gym provision, dedicating a higher percentage of the gym floor to resistance kit and free weights than ever before.” This trend is supported by results released by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) in their recent ‘Worldwide Survey of Fitness Trends for 2016’ report which lists free weights as a top five fitness trend prediction for 2016. In a survey of more than 2,000 female members of The Gym questioned across the UK last month, an overwhelming 93% said they now incorporate resistance training, including free weights and strength equipment, as part of their regular workout routine with impressive 65% of them lift up to three times a week. To underline its rise in popularity, just over three quarters of respondents (76%) said they had increased their resistance training in the last 12 – 18 months and just shy of half (49%) quoted free weights as their favourite piece of gym equipment. “We put this change in gym behaviour down to a couple of factors”, continued Graham. “Firstly, more and more women being inspired by female athletes sporting beautifully sculptured physiques. When questioned, over half (31%) of female members wanted a body like Jess Ennis-Hill, compared to only 10% who aspired to have a body like Kate Moss. “Secondly, we have worked hard to make our free weight areas less intimidating and more welcoming to beginners and novice gym users, especially women, by increasing the lighting, expanding the range of weights available and increasing the size of the area so people don’t feel they are encroaching on the space of others.” [Top 10 reasons to become beautifully strong 1. Increases lean muscle mass to achieve a toned, svelte physique 2. Improves flexibility 3. It boosts metabolism and burns fat 4. Increases skeletal strength and reduces risk of osteoporosis 5. Helps reduce risk of injury, back pain and arthritis 6. Improves posture 7. Reduces risk of heart disease 8. Boosts confidence and mental well-being 9. Improves balance and co-ordination 10. It’s never too late to start and strength improvements can be made at any age]
  11. Anavar is a very popular drug among women who are intensively involved in sports. We can say for sure that this drug is referred to anabolic steroids. But due to its small anabolic abilities and complete lack of aromatization, Oxandrolone is considered to be very soft. In comparison with all other drugs of anabolic origin, it occupies a leading position in terms of the safest. This is true, and because Anavar for women is the best and safest option. What Effects Can Women Expect From Anavar? Clearly it can be argued that to compare the effect of Anavar in women and men is not worth it. As practice shows, men can buy this drug for the first acquaintance with steroids, and later switch to stronger anabolics. But the female body responds to the reception of anabolic drugs is much stronger and the effect of taking even the smallest dosages is significant. Therefore, you should not take any steroid, without the slightest idea of the recommended dosages. It makes no sense to focus on consulting a doctor before using Oxandrolone, because in reality doctors do not face this drug in practice and therefore, in addition to standard excuses, you will not hear anything. The effect of receiving Anavar for women is very interesting, because throughout the reception cycle, you can observe significant positive progress. If you consider this drug as an ordinary Amateur who just wants to achieve a more perfect figure, then you have chosen the right direction. Taking Oxandrolone even in small doses helps to improve muscle tone of the whole body, which visually tightens the weak areas of your figure. Muscles melt really very dense and elastic, and when doing exercise, instantly clogged and melt just like a stone. But most importantly, it is a great increase in strength and endurance throughout the life of the steroid. The athlete is able to carry out more severe and prolonged training, during which significantly reduced body fat, and produced relief. It is also possible to observe additional drying by removing excess fluid from the body. What Can Be Added To Anavar? In addition, one of the most popular drugs that buy women is Clenbuterol. Its capabilities are also very interesting. It is not an anabolic steroid but promotes a good fat burning effect. In addition, it has the ability to make the muscles very hard and at the same time it tightens them well. Many argue that with proper nutrition, you can observe a certain anabolic process. In fact, muscle growth is quite small, but for many women, this is exactly what you need. Why Do Women Choose Anavar? Muscle gain for many women is desirable, but in very small quantities, it can be adjusted by increasing or reducing the daily dosage. However, it is worth noting that the muscles are recruited gradually and rapid growth will definitely not. Because it is not necessary to worry that you will Wake percacets and large, it is not real. Just Anavar has a good ability to save all the results during the reception cycle and you can be sure that the beautiful figure will stay with you for a long time. This is the most suitable steroid for women, who decided to put their figure in order and get a more sporty look.
  12. A super good read::: Steroid use, while far from normalized or acceptable, has become much more commonplace since the advent of the internet. It’s now easier to learn about steroids, easier to sell steroids, easier to purchase steroids, and thanks to the miracle of social media, easier to showcase steroid-enhanced bodies than ever before. Hell, for people like ex-baseball star Jose Canseco and recently deceased celebrity bodybuilder Rich Piana, it’s become much easier to talk openly about using and abusing these drugs for fun and profit. Of course, women do use steroids, and steroids are often extremely effective for them. Countries that employed systematic state-sponsored steroid doping programs, such as East Germany and the Soviet Union, did extremely well overall in international competition but absolutely cleaned up on the women’s side of the ledger. Today, the People’s Republic of China, which has yet to be exposed in the way the former USSR and GDR have been, is dominating many women’s events in a similar manner. Meanwhile, the aforementioned Jones, a two-sport star at the University of North Carolina, took an already-impressive natural physique, and with the pharmaceutical assistance of her then-husband and star shot-putter C.J. Hunter and the Bay Area Laboratory Co-operative (BALCO), became a GOAT on the order of fellow BALCO client and all-time home run king Barry Bonds. “It’s still verboten for women to talk about their steroid use,” says fitness journalist Anthony Roberts, the author of Anabolic Steroids: Ultimate Research Guide. “Women who use steroids conjure up images of Chyna and Nicole Bass with those messed-up faces from prolonged hormone abuse. Even those women whose careers clearly depend on steroid usage, at least at very low levels, won’t discuss it. Right now, there’s no female bodybuilding star who is open about taking steroids; there’s no outspoken female steroid expert. Women who rely on steroids to sell the sports nutrition products they endorse have to pass themselves off as ‘fake naturals’ in a way that men don’t. And it’s weird, because more women are lifting weights and doing strength-building exercises than ever before. It’s a terrible double-standard that benefits men. Women are forced to stay quiet, or even worse, lie about what they’re doing.” Over the years, Roberts has advised, consulted with and interviewed hundreds of women involved in professional bodybuilding. “It’s pretty common to hear folks say things like ‘even women’s fitness competitors use a low dose of Anavar or Winstrol here and there, maybe some [of the decongestant and bronchodilator stimulant] Clenbuterol,’” he says. “This is absolute bullshit. Competition level doses I’ve seen for women are much higher than people think, never less than 10 milligrams of Anavar, stacked with an equal amount of Winstrol and a bunch of Clenbuterol. I can’t remember the last time I’ve read a female bodybuilder or fitness girl’s drug program and not seen growth hormone in it.” “The side effects I’ve seen are manageable, and only temporary,” Roberts continues. “Permanent deepening of the vocal cords and clitoral enlargement are very uncommon, while the most common side effect is the growth of body hair and the loss of hair from the head. As for acne, if you had clear skin your whole life, the addition of steroids won’t likely produce much of it, whereas users who had breakouts during their teen years often see them recur if they use anabolics.” “To be perfectly frank,” Roberts adds, “most of the drugs that so-called male ‘contest prep gurus,’ also known as drug dealers, recommend for their female clients are steroids that are used in the world of male bodybuilding as cutting agents. This includes Anavar, Primobolan, Proviron and Winstrol. These steroids don’t provide huge weight gains but do provide high-quality gains of muscle and little water retention. Sounds great, right? This is surely why men recommend these drugs to women. Of course, these are also among the most expensive anabolics on the market, and thus provide healthy profits to the male ‘gurus’/drug dealers who recommend them.” However, Roberts concedes that there is only so much either he or I could say about the use of steroids by women. A conspiracy of silence surrounding this topic made it difficult to get women to talk on the record, understandable given the continuing cultural stigma directed at the practice. That said, one of Roberts’ friends and former clients, a National Physique Committee and Strongman athlete who has been sponsored by various supplement companies throughout her two-decade career, agreed to speak with me under the condition that, owing to the constraints of her full-time job, her identity be kept secret — a regular “Jane Grow.” The rest of this story is Jane’s, as it should be. I’m from New York City, where steroid use has been mainstream for a long time. I dare you to visit a New York or New Jersey gym and not find some random dudes who are using steroids recreationally — to enhance their beach bods or look good in the mirror. As for me, well, I’ve lifted weights since my late teens. People at the gym would say, “Wow, what are you training for?” and I had no answer. So I fell into bodybuilding as a form of competition, because how many other sports outlets are there for adults to compete? I competed naturally for a little while, then began dabbling with drugs like Primobolan [a mild steroid with no propensity for producing estrogenic side effects]. I took a break to start a family, and when I returned to the sport in my early 30s, I realized I was competing with other people who were already juicing, although I didn’t talk to them much about it. But I understood I was handicapping by not using performance-enhancing drugs. In terms of gaining access to steroids in the pre-internet era, you could basically go to any gym in the Tri-State area [New York, New Jersey and Connecticut], strike up a conversation with a meathead, and get what you needed. Of course, most of these bros had some really dumb ideas about steroid dosages for women. They might be taking 50 milligrams of Anavar, and their thinking was, “Okay, take half my dosage.” That’s terrible advice, because it’s too high a dose for a woman to start with. Therein was the problem: Women were going to men for access to steroids and advice about steroids, not to each other. I actually got to know Anthony [Roberts] in part because one of his earlier books had interesting, useful stuff about dosing that was directed specifically at women and supported by detailed research and investigation. In terms of how my body reacted to steroids, well, you’re obviously going to do better at the gym. My recovery times were faster, I gained more size and I generally felt healthier and stronger. I would do a cycle for 10 weeks, because with women longer, lower-dose steroid cycles work better, whereas men do better with shorter cycles and higher dosages. Hormonally… well, we’re already hormonally screwed up to begin with. I went through my second full cycle a few months after my first. At that point, I tried Anavar at the 5-milligram level — since then I’ve gone much higher than that — but I eventually realized this was a bad drug to use, since the cost-to-benefit ratio is low, and unless you’re buying from a trustworthy source, it’s often a faked compound. You’re sold Winstrol or even Dianabol [a potent steroid with many dangerous side effects]. This happens a lot. As I said, women often don’t talk to other women, and the results can be disastrous. Women end up relying on deceitful or dumb trainers, boyfriends and husbands who don’t have the slightest clue. In some ways, we’re going backwards, since in the early 2000s there were some private internet forums where women would gather to discuss side effects and results. The one I remember most clearly was moderated by Chad Nicholls [the husband of four-time Ms. Olympia Kim Chizevsky and the “contest prep guru” for Dallas McCarver, a bodybuilding star who died of a heart attack last year and whose autopsy revealed testosterone levels elevated far beyond anything else on record]. In fact, most of the moderators and administrators of these forums were men, now that I think about it, and sometimes the men butted in more than we would have liked, but they were reasonably safe spaces for discussing these topics. There was a woman-specific forum called “Sioux Country” that had a male admin who became this kind of creepy “white knight” savior. The discourse on there was pretty vibrant, but you always ran the risk of shit like that happening. Now these forums are long gone. You can’t even find traces of them via the Internet Archive Wayback Machine. In addition to the posts from people like Anthony, who was a legendary expert on those forums, I remember these amazing, woman-specific posts from someone using the nickname “NPCChica.” I referred to them all the time early in my bodybuilding career, but now they’ve disappeared from the record. Since the forums dwindled, most of my steroid talk with women hasn’t occurred in real life except for a few competitors in my area. Now that I’m doing Strongman events, most of the women I train with don’t discuss it at all. Certainly some of these women are using, but likely not to the extent women in bodybuilding are. The best people are probably always using, but it’s not for me to determine who is using what, nor do I care. Is [tennis star] Serena Williams doping, or is she just very thick-bodied? Hard to say, because she doesn’t have enough fat-free mass for me to make an accurate judgment. The same goes for fitness models. If they’re using something like [bronchiodilator / stimulant] Clenbuterol, that’s nothing. A person on Clen is a natural, in my book. But women’s bodybuilding at the highest level did require significant steroid use to achieve that fatless, hypertrophied look. I loved that look. The decision by the International Federation of Bodybuilding to demonize and then kill the women’s bodybuilding Olympia [in 2015], after years of dominance by [10-time Ms. Olympia] Iris Kyle, was unforgivable in my book. I participated in those shows and attended those shows because I wanted to see freakshows; I wanted to see the best of the best. And Iris Kyle, in terms of symmetry and muscle development, was the best. Nor was she huge, even if the way the media talked about female bodybuilders was that they were these hulking monstrosities. Kyle was 5-foot-7 and weighed 150 to 155 pounds onstage, maybe 175 pounds in the offseason. It wasn’t a lack of interest that led to women’s bodybuilding disappearing from the Olympia and Arnold Classic stages, the two biggest events of the bodybuilding calendar. The Wings of Strength Phoenix Rising event, which showcases women’s bodybuilding, pays out good prize money and has plenty of sponsors. It’s a big deal. Yet when women’s bodybuilding was removed from these events, it was pushed into its own boutique area. I was astonished at the lack of solidarity shown by male competitors. Can you imagine if even one top male bodybuilder had stood up for us? If one of the big stars, like Phil Heath, had said, “I’m going to boycott if you cut this because these women are my colleagues?” I haven’t gone to an Arnold or an Olympia since women’s bodybuilding was cut. I’m still angry about that. All our lives, women are told to be “less than.” As a trainer, what do my female clients say to me? “I want to lose my love handles.” Or: “I want to lose this underarm fat.” Whereas a male client will tell you exactly what they want to accomplish: “I want to get real strong.” All our lives, women are shrinking, vanishing, disappearing. Then the IFBB, this organization that should be helping all of us achieve our goals since we’re paying them megabucks in competition fees and membership dues, publishes these memoranda saying women should “downsize” by 20 percent. Bullshit. I use steroids because I want to be “more than,” not “less than.” I want to take up space. I’m only 5-foot-3, but I weigh 150 pounds. I take up space. I want to see other women take up space, too. I want them to spread out across the stage, as big as training and chemistry allow them to become. I’m talking to you about all this because I desperately want there to be more candor, more honesty. I want to be able to go on the record with the life that I lead. I want women to help each other use steroids, not men holding themselves out as “gurus” who say shit like, “Women can’t take this drug, that’s a man’s drug.” There are a handful of private, secret Facebook groups that function a bit like the forums used to, but there are men on there, too. They’re the ones mansplaining what to take and often selling the women the steroids and other drugs they need. These men consider themselves “experts” and their windbag pronouncements may carry more weight than the opinion of a woman who has used her body as a laboratory and can tell you which drugs work for her and which ones don’t. Basically, bodybuilding is the sport of steroid chemistry. There’s training and nutrition, too, but at the upper ranks, you must know steroid chemistry. I can tell you right now, having competed on growth hormone, that it’s just way too expensive as a drug, and if you combine it with insulin-like Growth Factor, you can end up with fibroids, tumors and diabetes. But GH really does help out with your skin. Your skin will look great. Lots of women love Clenbuterol, but I don’t care for it — or need it. My drug of choice is Masteron. It’s a steroid that has mild anti-estrogenic properties and used to be given to women for breast cancer; look at the etymology of that brand name [“mastos” is Greek for breast]. It’s fantastic for retaining strength during a caloric deficit, has few side effects at the low dose I use and pairs well with Winstrol when you’re hardening your body for a major bodybuilding competition. As much as I like Strongman sports now, I loved bodybuilding. You’re working to create a picture of perfection at a certain point in time. You can create the physique of a superhero, and then, months or years later, you can look back at the pictures and marvel at how cool you looked. And when you’re backstage with all these other female bodybuilders, you fit right in. It’s amazing. All these women who are suddenly “more than,” not “less than.” We’re all the same back there. We’re not competitive at all. We’re checking each other’s wardrobes and makeup. We’re all in it together. There’s such tremendous solidarity. My one real regret is that when you go out there and perform, you’re doing it in front of judges who are primarily male. There aren’t enough female judges, women who understand what a muscular woman’s body should be, just men who bring with them their own biases. Recently, I almost got in a fight with a guy on a train. “Are you a dude or a girl? Are you trans?” People say that more frequently than could ever imagine. And when they ask me this, I think, You don’t have any muscle, so I guess you’re a girl. Imagine approaching a skinny man and asking him if he’s a crack addict or suffering from AIDS. I’m just a short woman with fake breasts and large muscles walking down the street. I can’t even fathom what bigger women encounter. But behind the scenes at bodybuilding shows, with other women who look like me, with many women who are using steroids like me, it’s totally different. Everything we’ve done to ourselves is intentional. We wouldn’t trade these skinsuits we’ve made via chemistry and training for anything in the world. Any other sport you’re doing, from NASCAR to baseball, you leave your tools and your gear in the shop. I can’t put my body down and leave the house as anyone but me. That’s why when we go out, ignorant douchebags sometimes refer to us as “sir” or “bro.” Still, we’d never dream of doing anything but treasuring this one spectacular moment when none of that crap matters. Up on that stage, we’re everything we hoped and dreamed we could become.
  13. Since modern female bodybuilding began in the late 1970s, women in the sport have often been accused by some of trying to look like men. However, Charles Gaines, author of Pumping Iron, has called this kind of female body a “new archetype,” something never before seen any time or any place in all of history. So, if some people automatically associate muscles with masculinity, there are thousands of years of precedent encouraging them to do so. But times change. Not long ago, women couldn’t vote nor own property. Female scientists were not eligible to receive a Nobel Prize. Women nowadays can be doctors, lawyers, vice-presidents. And they can train to develop physiques with a lot of aesthetic muscle and become competitive bodybuilders. I’ve gotten in trouble over the years for saying that bodybuilding for women and for men should be judged by the same standards. People thought I was advocating that the women should look like the men. But what I meant is that the basic standards of bodybuilding competition – including mass, muscularity, symmetry, definition and proportion should apply equally to both genders. The difference between the genders is aesthetics. That is, the physical structure of the female body is different than that of the male, so aesthetic standards will be different. And if bodybuilding judges need to be told that there is a genetic, structural difference between women and men, they are probably not qualified to be judges. Women have a smaller skeletal structure than men. They have a wider pelvis and their thigh bones come down at more of an angle. Women have about 90% of potential leg mass than does a man, but only 50% of the upper body mass. Their biology determines they will carry more fat and water weight. And of course, they have only a small amount of male hormones in their systems than do men. It is also true that the training it takes for a woman to become a champion bodybuilder is pretty much the same as that of a male champion. A curl is a curl is a curl. Top competitors develop individual approaches to training to suit their genetics and temperaments, but there is no such thing as a distinction between training for male or females per se. Given real physiological differences, it’s harder for women to build upper body mass and to get really lean and defined. But history has shown that some women have been able to develop quality bodybuilding physiques in spite of the obstacles. But when you look at top female champions like Lenda Murray, Sharon Bruneau, Anja Langer, Alina Popa and Brigita Brezovac, nobody with an experienced eye would think they “looked like men.” Actually, the difference in body size between most men and women in general is about 13%. But the top male bodybuilders can weigh 100 lbs. or more compared to the women. Much greater than 13%. So, the case could be made that bodybuilding doesn’t make the male and between the genders greater! In any event, when you look at somebody like Rising Phoenix champion Helle Trevino, with her mass, shape, proportion and muscularity, ask yourself the question – aside from a few top male competitive bodybuilders, how many men do you know who actually look this good? There are many men training all over the world who actually want to “look like a girl” – as long as that girl is Helle Trevino or Alina Popa or Lenda Murray. But to do so they will need to build a time machine and go back and choose different grandparents. Because genetics rules and you can’t fool mother nature.
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